BE AWARE: My Tutorials are ONLY for your aid -- to help you! All tutorials have been turned in once by me and is my original work. I have excellent grades! You must do your own work with paraphrasing and summarizing. Thank you!
Date __, 20__
Classical conditioning is an intrinsic style of learning, which occurs by generating a response made by unconditioned stimuli’s, and was produced in 1903 by Ivan Pavlov (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). The theory behind classical conditioning is often known as one the most acceptable and oldest forms to model when learning about various human behaviors. This paper will focus on theoretical conditions and apply classical conditioning through a various examples as a means to give a better understanding. First off, it is important to understand that a scientist by the name of Pavlov discovered classical conditioning and was by sheer happenstance when examining the digestive system of canines (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). Another man, by the name of Watson, expanded the understanding of classical conditioning, which is in direct association to the way we learn. Nonetheless, both Watson and Pavlov pioneered classical conditioning as being the main source for remedial affects with creating sound behaviors and phobias. Teachers, parents, businesses, etc. will often use classical conditioning to influence behavior in daily circumstances. For instance, a wife can influence her husband by putting the toilet seat down more consistently by knowing how to utilize classical conditioning with her spouse. One of the first principles’s discovered was a stimulus, which causes instinctive responses (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009.) For instances, the smell of a cooking food, can cause one to be hungry. One of the stimuli’s, which can cause an instinctive reaction, is referred to as the unconditioned stimulus (US): the food. The unconscious response to the US is referred to as the unconditioned response (UR): the hunger. The neutral stimulus is the second principle, which is not the cause of the UR, rather it is a noise related to it: such as a dinner bell (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009.) The dinner bell is presented just before the US is stimulated, which is referred to as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The third theory takes place after the US and CS are coupled many times with that of the CS and is usually moments sooner than the US (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009.) In short, the CS (dinner bell) unaccompanied will originate the hunger. The hunger response, which is similar to the response of the US (food) will cause the proper response need for the CS (dinner bell). In retrospect, the conditioned reaction (CR) has now been assimilated. The US is the reinforcer because the whole conditioning process pivots on whatever reinforcements are being utilized (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009.) Although in classical conditioning, the animal or person will not always have control over reinforcements, since it happens when the person who is using classical conditioning wishes for it to transpire (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009.) Conversely, reinforcements are not dependent on any palpable responses: therefore, the behaviors are discovered in their unique ways. Rather classical conditioning that takes place in an animal or person will learn quickly which ecological influences are supportive to its existence (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009.) When viewing the success of classical conditioning, it typically obtains several pairings, which encompass a US and a CS, and are measured as an association to learning. One of the key elements to associative learning is in classical conditioning, and requires a natural instinct to strengthen (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009.) Conditioned Fears
John B. Watson, in 1921, was an extremist in environmental determinist, who furthered Pavlov’s philosophies within the human race. Watson strongly felt that every person born had...
References: Olson, M. H. & Hergenhahn, B. R. (2009). An introduction to theories of learning (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document