LRT First Submission
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This assignment is my original work and I have acknowledged all sources.
To be completed by CELTA tutor
…everything that has happened to us during the day.
Has happened is for those actions which started in the past, but have a connection with the present. Has happened is an intransitive verb as there is no action attached to the verb. This is the present perfect tense it is used to describe actions or events that are complete, but have a connection with the present. (Swan, M. 2004:438) CCQs:
Are the events finished? Yes.
Is the day in the past? No.
How could we be feeling now? We could be sleepy and tired now. Form:
Auxiliary verb + past participle of intransitive verb
Has is the 3rd person singular present indicative of have.
Happened is the past participle of happen.
Sentence stress is placed on happened and the first syllable in happened is stressed. 1. Problem: Students may mispronounce happened with the /id/ or /t/ sound instead of the /d/ sound. A common mistake with past tense forms of regular verbs. Solution: Show the phonetic spelling of happened and explain that we the use /id/ sound when the infinitive ends in /t/ or /d/. We use the /t/ sound when the infinitive ends in /p/, /k/, /θ/, /f/, /s/, /ƒ/, /tƒ/ (Parrot, M. 2004:405).
2. Problem: Students may use the verb have instead of its 3rd person singular present tense has. Solution: Explain that have is used in the first person but in this case as we are using the third person has is used. 6. If scientists invented a pill which, if you took it, would keep you awake for ever, would you take it?
(Parrot, M. 2004:405).
(Swan, M. 2004:438).
…but sooner or later we have to sleep.
In this sentence have to sleep is used to express the idea that we are obliged to sleep even if we don’t wish to do so. (Swan, M. 2004:438) CCQs:
Is it something we must do? Yes.
Can we avoid it? No.
Use of examples:
We have to follow the high way code.
Pubs have to hold a license to sell alcohol.
Have to is a non-modal alternative to the modal verb must regarding obligation. It is interchangeable with have got to, this last form being more common in spoken and informal British English. http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/137970/modal-vs-non-modal-vs-auxiliary-modal-vs-conjugated-verb The structure of the have to form is Subject+ Have+ Infinitive (with to). The negative form expresses an absence of obligation.
Make sure that both words are pronounced together as they are linked as one word. Anticipated problems and solutions
Students don’t use the auxiliary verb when forming the negative and interrogative form: Haven’t we have to sleep? We haven’t been to sleep. Solution: First, elicit examples from students and compare the correct form vs the incorrect one on the board. Later, during correction provide an incorrect example and ask students to correct. 2. Problem:
Have to are two separate word but in this case they must be pronounced as one word.
Solution: Use fingers to make as one word.
We can put off sleeping for a limited period.
To decide to delay something to a later time that is constrained.
Is this something that we want to do now? No
Will the sleeping be delayed to another time? Yes
Can we delay sleeping forever? No.
A manager may put off a meeting to a later time in the day.
Put off (verb+ adverb) is a transitive phrasal verb.
Put off is normally followed by an object. In the example above the object is sleeping (verb+ing form, acting as a noun) Put off is also separable, i.e. you can separate the verb part from...
References: (Parrot, M. 2004:405).
(Swan, M. 2004:438).
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