Section 1.Comparison and contrast of the attitudes toward the elderly in Healthcare provisions in Korea and the UK…………P4
Section 2. Comparison and contrast the impacts on economy of an ageing population……………………………………………….P9
It is widely known that the world population seems to be growing dramatically and the life expectancy of people tends to be older than many years ago. Due to the long life expectancy, the elderly population have been rising very rapidly all over the world. According to the article “ How many people can live on earth “ (BBC knowledge) (2009-2010), we can probably see that the world median age is getting older caused by the changes of economy and standard of living. As the result of that situation, nowadays, so many countries tend to concentrate on the elderly people’s lives. In addition, the government try to proffer the best healthcare services for elderly people. However, There are also many factors that can be affected by an ageing population such as economy, education and healthcare. Moreover, The economic effects of an ageing population are the main factors that have more impacts on the healthcare provision for elderly people. These two areas seem to be inter-related as elderly people tend to be increasingly in need of care. To prevent this situation, People have to focus more on the elderly generation. However, when the citizens are growing older, many countries will be affected at the economic factors such as South Korea which is one of the most developed countries in Asia and moreover It will influenced the United Kingdom which is one of the most blossoming country in Europe. This assignment will compare and contrast the attitudes toward the elderly people in United Kingdom, which is a developed country in Europe and South Korea, which is a developing country in Asia. In this assignment, the topic will be reduced to the two main topics, which are the healthcare provision and the economic impacts of an ageing population. The first section, it will be more concentrated on two sides of healthcare provisions, “private services” and “ government services”. Moreover, the second section will show the effects on GDP ratio (Gross domestic product) and Saving sector based on taxes in these two countries.
Section 1. Comparison and contrast the attitudes toward the elderly people in Healthcare provisions in the United Kingdom and South of Korea. Healthcare provisions can be defined as the supply of the treatment to improve the people’s health. Throughout the development of the countries, they are both developing their healthcare quality along with the increase of living standard. In both of the United Kingdom and Korea, they are trying very hard to improve their National healthcare services for elderly people. Because, in this two countries the population of elderly people who are all over 65-80 years old has risen very rapidly around this time in the two indicator that called the state services and the private sector. First of all, there are several similarities between the two countries in healthcare provisions for elderly people in both of the state sector and private sector. In the UK, the government created a state services that called National Health Services (NHS). Inside this service, the people can receive the physical care and mental care. The situation is similar for the elderly people in Korea, after just provide the private healthcare supply, nowadays, South of Korea has stared to provide the national healthcare services that called the Medical Aid. As people is widely known as the standard of livings and the life styles in South of Korea has changed dramatically since 1960, the elderly people has leaned to care for their health. In both of two countries, the life expectancy in both genders is located with very high figures due to the improvement of living standard. It is well-known as in both of two countries the ages of the elderly people reach to more than 75 years old in average. In both of two countries, it can be seen easily that the healthcare quality is also now growing up. In facts, there are some complains about the healthcare provisions in both of two countries. In the United Kingdom, the health inequalities is still going upward because of the care between the groups of the elderly people is different such as the different races and ethnic groups. According to a journal, the elderly of black people that receive the healthcare unequally with other groups. David. N is suggested in his journal “ Reducing inequalities in healthcare provisions for older adult ” that the elderly people who are in the ethnic group or the poor now are being faced the inequalities in healthcare provisions. As the same situation as the United Kingdom, the old people in South Korea who are poor and live in rural areas that do not have the same quality of care like other people in the other class or in the urban areas. According to “The South Korean Healthcare system” written by Young Joo Song , we can easily identify that most medical facilities are located in urban areas, and around 90%
of physicians are concentrated in cities. The proof that the elderly population live in rural areas have the difficulties to reach to the better health care. As it is widely known that these two countries they have so many similarities in healthcare provisions for elderly people. However, There are some differences between two majors countries. As it is widely know that the United Kingdom have also two major of healthcare provisions. First of all, the government provision can identify as the National healthcare Services to prevent the inequality in healthcare provision. As David N the writer of the article “Reducing the inequalities for Healthcare provision for older adults “ suggested that we use the National healthcare services to reduce the rates of risk which can cause to the elderly people. Another suggestion idea that even they try to encourage the services otherwise at some case , the quality of the healthcare services still got the decline because of the lack of government intervention. Another factor that provide the better services for elderly is the private healthcare provision. With the private investment, they can provide the better services , any evidences such as consultation and treatment can be do better than the state services. They provide the more special services for elderly people. As some british family they try to give their parent the private services such as family doctor and family nurse to to do treatment. Secondly ,The quality of people’s lives in South of Korea has been increasing . However , the elderly people in South of Korea using more private healthcare provision than the United Kingdom otherwise the government still contribute the subsidy for the healthcare service. According to Sooman Kwon with “The introduction in longterm care in Korea” The government still support the elderly people with 20% finance. According to the articles “Care services for frail older people in Korea” by Kyeung Mi Oh and Athony Warnes ,the government spent nearly 5000 trillion won on healthcare service .As people can easily see that the elderly people in South of Korea has more choices to concern about their health rather than others. The poor elderly population attempts to pay a certain amount of their consultion cost. On the other hand, rich people in Korea may pay a large of amount of money to take care of their health. As it is widely known that the elderly population in the South of Korea can also get the better healthcare service.
Section 2. Comparison and contrast the economic effects of an ageing population When the population is getting even older, the economy has faced so many impacts. The two blossoming countries are Southern Korea and the United Kingdom that have to confront to these troubles. As it is widely known that the population in two countries are being older. It seem to be suggested that in both two countries have that the proportion of the elderly people has rising rapidly. There are so many similarities between these two countries. First of all, the risen of the elderly population can cause the changes in the GDP rate. We can identify that GDP is the gross domestic product shown the total value of goods and services that produced within the domestic market. GDP can be understood as the living standard. In both Korea and UK, the value of GDP receives very serious effects following the changes of the ageing demographic. The proportions of GDP that spent for Healthcare and some other services such as education for young generation will slightly decline. According to the article “The burden of ageing: The impacts on economy of the changing demographic”, we can easily see that the changes of ageing population we have to increase more proportions of pension for elderly people. However, not only the GDP rate confronts the impacts of the changes in ages, also the employment rate has faced to this changes. It is clearly known that the more elderly people, the more employment rate will be declined caused by the unemployment rate has been rising. In both two countries, so many workers in working ages are in need to take jobs otherwise the government can not supply enough jobs for them. As these two countries have so many equivalences but they still have so many differences. First of all, As in the first paragraphs just described the changes of an ageing population have been rising rapidly in the United Kingdom. The people in young working ages has to carry on their shoulder more responsibilities to make more money so at this case the GDP may vary the very high figures following the hard work of the young ages. However, there are some negative impacts for the young working ages also that they have to pay more taxes in order to subsidize the increased bills for pension and healthcare for elderly people. Neil Punnett whose write the article” Aging populations” published from April 2010 suggested that based on the region, elderly people will have the different amount of pension. As the place have less proportion of the working person the less generous pensions when the life expectancy were lower. To make the resolutions, now , the UK try to impress the migrants to increase the GDP then slow down the changes in demographic population. According to the article “ Ageing population and its effects on GDP” by Ronald C. and Therri. V , as could be expected the changes in case of immigration , cause the increase of GDP rate from 2.5% to 4.5%. Moreover, South of Korea seem to have the very excessive elderly population then it tend to be gathered so many effects on their economy as well. First of all, the workings age population have to bear more responsibilities to support to the dependents. They tend to work more to earn more money to assist money to their family. As a result of this situation, Chong Bung-Ann associate professor of the Sungkyungkwan university has been suggested in his article “Demographic Changes and the economic growth” suggested that GDP per capital of population has increased very rapidly during the time but not seem to be the same with the United Kingdom which use the most of government expendixture to support the elderly people the private saving in South of Korea has grow to very high, the sign of saving rate has risen positive and significant about 1% than the other time in the past. This professor also support the prediction for the Korean economy that the share of working age group will tend to decrease from 73.2% to 64.7% during 14 years afterward. Another idea that I would like to suggest that this changes on demographic population can slow down the South of Korea economy in the recent year.
In conclusion, as the recent situation of the changing in demographic situation in the whole world but especially the changes of the South Korea and the United Kingdom, it can affect both the growth of economy and the supply of healthcare services for the elderly people. As it seem to be very serious situation then the government and all the citizens should use some solutions to control that serious situation. According to the essay, we can summarize up the differences between the United Kingdom and the South of Korea by the way how they provide the healthcare provisions in two indicators such as the state services and the private sectors and the effects on the economy in two countries as mentioned in the section 2. Additionally, throughout this culmination, the writer would like to suggest some solution to prevent this situation. First of all, we should increase the human capital and expand the labour productivity. Secondly, We can open the market to occupied more immigration to confront the balance of the demographic changes in the future as the life expectancy now is being much longer. This assignment assists me to understand more about the changes in the human life in two developed countries. As it mentioned inside the assignment , we can base on that to achieve the better changes in the future over the world.
Wesites : David N “Reducing the inequalities of health” http://nursingstandard.rcnpublishing.co.uk/archive/article-reducing-inequalities-in-healthcare-provision-for-older-adults Yoo Young Soo “the health care system in Korea”
http://www.coopami.org/en/countries/other_countries/south_korea/social_protection/pdf/south_korean_health_care_system.pdf http://www2.lse.ac.uk/LSEHealthAndSocialCare/pdf/eurohealth/VOL15No1/Kwon.pdf http://www.propertyshowrooms.com/england/guide/healthcare-in-england.asp http://www.historyandpolicy.org/docs/thane_social_care.pdf
http://www.sigmascan.org/Live/Issue/ViewIssue/121/4/the-burden-of-ageing-economic-impacts-of-changing-demographics/ Chong Bung An . The changes in demographic and economic growth http://www.apeaweb.org/confer/sea06/papers/an-jeon.pdf
* Books :
John Blunden , Peter Haggett
Fundamental of Human geography; A reader
Jane Chrispin and Francis Jedgede
Population , resources and development
AS GEOGRAPHY Book let from Cambridge press