Compare And Contrast Two Of The Major Approaches To Psychological Distress With Particular Reference To Their Theoretical Underpinnings, Therapeutic Approach And Any Ethical Issues.
Within Clinical psychology approaches such as psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive behavioural therapy, and the systemic family approach are used for persons suffering from mental distress. Here i have looked at two of these approaches systemic family approach and cognitive behavioural therapy. Dr Freud was born 1856 he was one of the first doctors to become interested and involved in studying human behaviour. He came to the conclusion that some of his medical patients at the time were showing signs of mental distress without having any obvious physical cause .So he then went on to focus his study on the human mind, behaviour and emotions he first looked at human development from early childhood and concluded that some people did not develop in healthy ways. Freud then continued to further analyze children’s behaviours to find out where the start of the problem had emerged or blockages as he called them had transpired from .This was referred to as “psychoanalysis” The origin and development of psychoanalysis (April 1910) the behavioural therapy part of CBT came about when other psychologists throughout history wanted to gain an in depth insight into human behaviour .One of these prominent psychologists was called Dr Pavlov was born in 1849 one of his most well know documented pieces of work was that of an experiment with a dog, he found that if he gave the dog food at the same time as ringing a bell that he could anticipate that the dog would salivate upon hearing the bell even if there was no food followed. This was called “a conditioned reflex” this knowledge has been used to influence and manipulate human behaviours ever since .For example the token economy, or a work bonus for doing good work this entails repetitive good behaviours as humans are likely to repeat a good behaviour if there is a reward at the end. Another pioneer in the area of cognitive thinking was Dr Aron Beck he noted that his patients at the time that were suffering depression seemed to think in similar negative ways this would include patients thinking negatively about themselves there past and their future and the world in general these were referred to by Beck as (schemata’s). In the 1960’s he developed programmes to help patients to stop thinking negatively .CBT treatments have proven to be very helpful in numerous study’s and observations over time “CBT has been applied to a wide variety of disorders and problems, and has shown positive treatments gains across the board in terms of absolute efficiency “Handbook of cognitive-behavioural therapies 3rd edition K, S.Dobson (no year given) Cognitive behaviour Therapy theoretical underpinnings is that it is focused on problem solving .Cognitive behaviour therapy relies on the knowledge and collaboration of both the therapist and the client working together. CBT can been seen as therapeutic because it is a talking therapy the client builds a relationship with the therapist learning to trust and disclose issues that have caused previous trauma and distress. Cognitive behaviour therapy combines and joins ideas developed by cognitive therapists and rational emotive behaviour therapists .The concentrated idea behind CBT is that the way the person feels thinks and then subsequently acts are intertwined mechanisms and are simultaneously related to one another and to understand how a person interprets the emotions. The therapist has to eradicate those negative interpretations by using techniques such as systematic desensitisation Socratic questioning and flooding. Ethically challenges arise for example, during the flooding approach patients are encouraged to visit painful memories from their past with the aim of reintegrating their repressed emotions...
References: Keith, S , D.(October 2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioural therapies, 3rd edition, Keith S.Dobson
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