Aspects of Life Influencing Health
Physical activity or exercise can improve your health and reduce the risk of developing certain noncommunicable conditions or diseases (NCDs). Non communicable diseases are related to an inactive lifestyle which can lead to a Hypokinetic Disorder, the term first originated in a book called Hypokinetic Disease (Kraus.H, W. Raab. 1961, p.8), stating the term originates from the Greek meaning ‘caused by insufficient motion’. The World Health Organization (WHO.2013) state there are four main types of noncommunicable diseases related to obesity, such as cardiovascular diseases (heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and asthma) and type 2 diabetes. Inactivity is as deadly as smoking according to a new study in The Lancet, that shows that more than 5.3 million deaths that occurred due to physical inactivity in 2008 is equivalent to the 5 million deaths attributed to smoking in 2000 as published in The Lancet (Klim McPherson, et al 2011). Whether the research is similar for both models is unknown but the figures are shocking and research from the same journal suggests an increase of great proportion over the next few decades if conditions remain the same for adults and children. How has the country managed to be in this situation? As Kraus and Raab (1961) suggest since humans have been on earth, we have been trying to find ways to make our lives easier by substituting technology for our own labour. If we look at our lives for instance, do we move much at all? Most typical household chores are managed with a machine, we ride not walk, use escalators instead of stairs, machines have taken over the majority of any physical activity once done by humans, and so with all this being done for us surely there is time for us to cook a healthy meal. However, we still would rather eat convenience foods and takeout, which is high in fat, salt and sugars; but for some this is cheaper than buying fresh fruit and vegetables. With this in mind it can be seen that if the population over-feeds on an unhealthy diet and are inactive, they are putting themselves at a greater risk of obesity. This occurs when energy expenditure is less than the energy intake which leads to developing a hypokinetic disease, which in turn will be detrimental to their life. For a small majority who are inactive due to a physical disability or have an abnormal gene e.g. thyroid deficiency they should be under a dietician and physiotherapist. WHO (2013) plans for the global strategy for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, is to establish and reinforce initiatives on the prevention and management of noncommunicable diseases, including obesity. The predictions from The Lancet (2011) believe that if trends follow half of the population could be obese by 2030, which is 1 in 10 in the UK.
“The first conclusive evidence on the danger of passive smoking came from Takeshi Hirayama’s study in 1981 on lung cancer in non-smoking Japanese women married to men who smoked”. (Mackay & Eriksen, 2002, p. 8) When someone lights a cigarette, the smoke from it and what is breathed out and inhaled by those who do not smoking is called ‘Passive Smoking or Secondhand smoking’. It is harmful and can cause health problems throughout life, frequently resulting in death or disability, to those who do not smoke especially children. Passive smoking can damage the body as secondhand smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals such as arsenic, ammonia, acetone and carbon monoxide but to name a few, many of which are irritants and toxins, and some of which are known to cause cancer. Passive smoking from all forms of tobacco is harmful, such as cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hand-rolling tobacco and cannabis. Frequent exposure of passive smoking can increases a child’s or an adult's risk of lung cancer by 24% and heart disease by 25%,...
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