top-rated free essay

Asian Cultural Heritage

By aguevarra Oct 22, 2012 1085 Words
ASIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE
The popular and widely known Asian “Migration Theory” of professor H. Otley Beyer about the prehistoric peopling of the Philippines is now considered untenable by modern scholars. They questione the manner by which the theory was formulated because of the absence of historical or archeological proofs to support it.

The Asian texture of Filipino culture from the prehistoric Spanish times, therefore, could be traced to evolutionary factors, the continous migrations of people and the early contacts with other Asian civilizations.

INDIAN INFLUENCES

Indian influences were traceable in the languages, religious belief, literature, customs and traditions of early Filipinos.

The Supreme God of the ancient Tagalog was Bathala, which came from the Sanskrit word B’hattara (great Lord) Among the pre-Islamic natives of Sulu, Indra Battara was the most prominent deity, Indra, being the sky god. The other gods the natives believed were of Indian or Vedic in origin such as Agni (fire god) and Surya (sun god). The epics of the early Filipinos such as the Biag ni Lam-Ang of the ilocanos, Mahabharata, the Indian epic. Some Filipino superstitious beliefs that originated from India were:

1. A comet is a bad sign; it brings war, famine and other calamities. 2. A pregnant woman must not eat twin bananas for she will give birth to twins.

The putong (headgear) of the early Filipino male was Indian origin. So was the sarong (Indian sari), the lower part of the clothing of pre-Spanish women. Indian influences on Filipino culture are clearly manifested by the presence of Sanskrit words in Tagalog language. Dr. T.H. Pardo de Tavera mentions 340 Sanskrit words. Examples are:

SanskritTagalog
1. Atawaasawa (spouse)
2. Amaama (father)
3. Raharaha (king)
4. Harihari (king)
5. Kottakuta (fort)
6. Gandaganda (beauty)
7. Bhattarabathala (god)
8. Mutyamutya (pearl)
9. Inaina (mother)

MALAYAN INFLUENCES
The Maragtas
For lack of historical or archeological data, the Maragtas or the great tale about the Ten Bornean Datus who came to Panay may be part-history and part-fiction. According to this great story, at around 1250 AD, ten datus and their families left Borneo to escape the repressive rule of Sultan Makatunaw and to establish new homes across the seas. Led by Datu Puti, the Malays landed in Panay Island where they negotiated with Marikudo, the Negrito king for the barter of the lowlands. The agreed price was one golden salakot for the Ati king and one gold necklace for Maniwangtiwang, Marikudo’s wife. The barter of Panay was sealed by an agreement of friendship between the Atis and the Malays. The Negritos, after performing their merry songs and dances, retreated to the mountains.

There are some interesting coincidences, however, between the legend of Maragtas and Panay customs and traditions. To this day, the ati-atihan, a colorful song and dance festival is celebrated in Aklan. This is to re-enact the warm welcome accorded to the Malays by the Atis, which resulted to the purchase of Panay. W.H. Scott, the American missionary, in his doctoral dissertation (1968) comments: “There is no reason to doubt that this legend (Maragtas) preserves the memory of an actual event, but it is not possible to date the event itself, or to decide which of the details ar historical facts, and which are the embellishments of generations of oral transmission.”

CHINESE INFLUENCES
The Chinese, who came to the Philippines, whether as traders or settlers, were primarily interested in trade, so their influences on Filipino life were mainly economic and social. The early Filipinos learned from the Chinese the art of metallurgy, the manufacture of gunpowder, mining methods and the use of porcelain, gongs, umbrellas, lead and kites.

From the Chinese originated the dishes lumpia, mami, okoy, pansit, bihon, chop suey and siopao. Sauces like toyo, and tawsi also came from the Chinese. Some Chinese customs were eventually adopted by the Filipinos. The arrangement of marriage of children by parents, the use of go-between in negotiating marriage, the use of white clothes or dress during the period of mourning and the filial respect for elders accorded by the children were examples of practices borrowed from the Chinese. About a thousand words are found in the Filipino language. Among them are the following:

ChineseFilipino
1 Inkongingkong
2 Hebihibi
3 A-chiate
4 Bi-koebiko
5 Dikiamdikiam
6 Pin-topinto
7 Sosisusi
8 Mikimiki
9 Bakkiahbakya
10 Pansitpansit

JAPANESE RELATIONS
The Filipinos had been trading with the Japanese long before the coming of the Spaniards. Japanese bahan (merchants) and wakos (pirates) sailed the South China Sea seeking for Sung and Yuan wares buried in Philippines graves, iron and woolens for Filipino gold and wax. The Japanese immigrants who came to the Philippines during the pre-Spanish times settled at the mouth of the Cagayan River, the Lingayen Gulf area, and Manila.

The first recorded encounter between the Japanese and the Spaniards was in 1572 when Juan de Salcedo, while sailing from Manila to Ilocos, fought off three Japanese junks off the coast of Pangasinan. The Japanese pirates sailed away, after fierce fighting. In 1582, an expedition led by Captain Juan Pablo Carreon assaulted a Japanese colony founded by the pirate Tayfusa at the mouth of Cagayan River. The Japanese were forced to leave the place. The early Japanese merchants also traded with Agoo, a town in the Lingayen Gulf area. They brought with them utensils, assorted weapons, salted meats and other Japanese were better treated and nodiscrimatory decrees were made against them. The Spaniards respected and feared them.

ARABIC INFLUENCES
Arabia’s most enduring legacy to the peoples of Sulu and Mindanao is Islam. The Arabs also introduced the sultanate form of government, Arabic art and literature; the Arabic alphabet; the Koranic Law; the mosque; the art of warfare- lantaka(cannon), vinta(warboat) and the kuta(fort). The Luwaran, a code of laws and compilation of the customs and traditions of the early Muslims, was written in Arabic. The Maranao’s Darangan (epic poetry), Maguindanao’s Indarapatra and Sulayman and Sulu’s Parang Sabil were deeply inspired by Islam. Arabic influence is also clearly seen in the decorative and ornamental art of the maranaos, who are the best –known wood carvers and painters of the region.

Arabic words are also found in the Filipino language. Examples are: surat(letter), apu(old man), akma (appropriate), arak (wine), alamat (legend), maalem (knowing), pirate (scar) and salam (thanks).

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Cultural Heritage Paper

    ...Cultural Heritage Grand Canyon University NRS-429V February 10, 2013 Cultural Heritage Cultural heritage can be defined as a way of living one’s life including the customs, practices, values, beliefs, traditions and lifestyles that a person or group of people practice (Baker, 2007). Cultural heritage are those things that are ...

    Read More
  • Cultural Heritage and Its Development

    ...Cultural heritage: Its relevance in the social development. Cultural heritage is the total of contributions by a community that are held to be legacy which is inherited by the past for the benefit of their future. This includes literature, buildings, monuments, artifacts and others. As what Edward Burnett Tylor (1871) said: “Culture is tha...

    Read More
  • World Cultural Heritage

    ...origin of some cultures and also religions. These World Cultural heritages include tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity). ...

    Read More
  • Legacy: Philippine World Heritage Site

    ...Philippine World Heritage Site” is a documentary film narrated by Mr. Augusto F. Villalon, a Filipino architect. The documentary film chronicles about his trips to the different Philippine world heritage sites as declared by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization). The world holds so many wonders, from the ...

    Read More
  • Heritage Tourism

    ...Portuguese government has tried to preserve the cultural influence over Macau after 1999. By preserving the mixture of Eastern and Western cultures in Macau, it paved the way for the development of cultural tourism in Macau. Nowadays, the development of cultural heritage tourism is significantly successful. The culture of Macau is not merely gam...

    Read More
  • Heritage Assesment

    ...Heritage Assessment Every individual has a cultural heritage. Each culture views the world differently. Culture is an inherited characteristic and includes knowledge, beliefs, customs, skills, likes and dislikes. The fundamental role of cultural heritage is uniting, respecting the diversities and brings people together to face the future by in...

    Read More
  • Role of Youth in Enriching and Conserving Your Cultural Heritage

    ...Essay And Article On : Our Cultural Heritage !! March 24, 2012 By parm Leave a Comment inShare India Is A Unique Cultural Heritage !! A safe and secure society is needed for blossoming of arts and sciences. India has a rich cultural heritage. Though it has been subjected to a series of cultural invasions, yet it has retained its originalit...

    Read More
  • Cultural Baggage

    ...Summary of “Cultural Baggage” In the article “Cultural Baggage” published at The New York Times magazine on May 3, 1992, the author Barbara Ehrenreich assess and weighs hers and other people’s cultural and religious background. By listening to an exciting friend about her cultural legacy, Mrs. Ehrenreich abruptly understood that she h...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.