“TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY”
Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a life-threatening health issue in the United States. Every year million Americans suffer from traumatic brain injury. Cases of this frequently result to death, while those who survive are left with serious disabilities. Every twenty-one seconds, one person in the United States endured TBI. In 2013 alone, 1.5 million Americans suffered from traumatic brain injuries (Ross et. al, 2014). Traumatic brain injury is described as a change in brain function or other indication of brain pathology, due to an external force. TBI’s can be categorized as congenital, perinatal, or acquired. In congenital and perinatal cases of TBIs, children are born with such diseases and or physical abnormalities. The subcategories of an acquired TBI are non-traumatic and traumatic. From there traumatic brain injuries are broke down into two more sub-categories called open and closed injuries. Open head injury is a skull fracture that is driven into the brain caused by high-momentum causes or objects to the head while a closed head injury is a mild physical trauma, but still keeping the skull intact (Chew, et. al, 2014). TBI is categorized according to its severity (1) concussion, (2) contusion and (3) laceration. Concussion is defined as caused by a blow to the head that bruises the brain. The bruising causes tiny blood vessels, or capillaries, in the brain to rupture, which compromises blood supply to the neurons supported by those capillaries. Contusion is defined as head trauma in which the head is jarred with such force that the brain becomes shifted in the skull and is badly bruised. And finally, laceration is defined as tearing of the brain, particularly the outer surface of the brain. Objects such as bullets that penetrate the skull will enter the brain and rip through brain tissue, unraveling neural connections and causing massive bleeding, or hemorrhage. (Wilson, J. F. 2013). Typical reasons for TBI’s are falls, motor vehicle-traffic accidents, crash into/collision accidents and sports injuries. Motor vehicle accidents are the primary cause of all head injuries. These accidents cause about 28% of traumatic brain injuries. The intense crash in a car accident can result to a closed or open head trauma—bruising, tearing brain tissue, bleeding and swelling of the brain. The next leading source of TBI’s is sport injuries which affects 20% of all known cases. Sport injuries are caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head that can change the way the brain normally works, producing severe concussions leading to traumatic brain injuries (Ross et. al, 2014). TBI’s have different severity levels such as mild, moderate, and severe. In mild cases there are changes in mental status at the time of the injury. We often see mild cases of TBI’s in people who suffered a concussion. Next is, moderate cases of TBI. In this occurrence loss of consciousness for minutes and sometimes even hours will be experienced. The individual is confused for days or weeks at a time. Injuries of a moderate TBI may be temporary or permanent. Finally, the severe type of TBI, an individual is at an unconscious state for days, weeks, or months. In nearly all situations with this level, injuries are permanent, and it will take 7 to 8 months for a concussed individual to recover (Chew et. al, 2014). Traumatic brain injuries are not discriminative of age, gender, sex or race; everyone can suffer from this type of disease. Though, they are more rampant in certain individuals. Males are 1.5 times more likely to sustain a TBI than females. Moreover, certain age groups are at a greater risk than others such as, 0-4 year olds and 15-19 year olds. Another age group is the elderly—75 and above. Most TBIs suffered at this age are fall related. In terms of race, African Americans have the highest death rate from TBI. It is known that some...
References: Chew, H., Leyon, J., Sawlani, V., Senthil, L., (2014), “Role of neuroimaging in management of traumatic brain injury”. Retrieved from http://tra.sagepub.com/content/16/4/227
Ross, D., Ochs, A., Zannoni, M., Seabaugh, J., (2014), “Back to the future: Estimating pre- injury brain volume in patient with Traumatic brain injury”. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109528
Gajardo, R., Matamala, J., Carrasco, R., Gutierrez, R., Melo, R., Rodrigo, R., (2014), Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Traumatic Brain Injury: Acute Antioxidant Reinforcement. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40263-013-0138-y#page-1
Wilson, J. F. (2013). Biological basis of behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Chapter 13
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