The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, namely ASEAN was form on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand. The formation of ASEAN consists of five countries, which are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. ASEAN Declaration that signed including founding document and the formalization of principle of peace and cooperation between member states. ASEAN promote political stability, regional integration and economic growth among member states. ASEAN also hold the principle of non-interfere to member states’ policies. However, ASEAN consists of ten member states today, including Brunei Darussalam which joined on 7 January 1984; Viet Nam on 28 July 1995; Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997; and Cambodia on 30 April 1999. ASEAN consist of three pillars, and each has its own blueprint. The three pillars are ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC), ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC). Other than these three communities, there is ASEAN Charter that legally forms on 15 December 2008. The main purpose of ASEAN Charter is to provide a legal framework for ASEAN. ASEAN are successful in reduce conflict and confrontation between member states, comply with the principle of promote political peaceful. Besides, ASEAN also provide forum that allow communication between authorities from each member country, to promote internal stability of region. History of ASEAN
ASEAN was born on 8 August 1967 in the Department of Foreign Affairs building main hall in Bangkok. ASEAN Declaration refers to the document that five foreign minister had signed. The Founding Father of this association were Tun Abdul Razak(Malaysia), Thanat Khoman(Thailand), S. Rajaratnam(Singapore), Narciso R. Ramos(Philippines), and Adam Malik(Indonesia).
ASEAN Declaration was a prove for establishment of ASEAN with contain only five articles. Whereby, articles were about aims and purpose for cooperation between countries in different fields. These include economic, cultural, social, technical, educational and etc. Besides that, it also promote peace and stability between countries by give respect for justice and the rule of law which comply with United Nations Charter's principles. ASEAN would like to combine all nations of Southeast Asia in cooperation and friendship by every nation's effort and sacrifices to provide peace, freedom and prosperity for their peoples and also next generation. Therefore, it announced that all States in the Southeast Asian region would be welcome to join ASEAN.
Before the born of ASEAN, there were two sub-regional associations in Southeast Asia which were Association of Southeast Asia(ASA) and Maphilindo. ASA was established in 1961 by Government of Malaya, Thailand and Philippines. This Association produces a closed economy and culture within three countries by excluded other states in Southeast Asia. However, ASA had comes to the end during 1960s, due to inability to solve territorial conflicts occur among members. Thus, Maphilindo was born containing three Federation- Malaya, Philippines, and Indonesia. The purpose of this Association was to end conflicts and cultural differences in the Malay-based nations in Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, territorial conflicts among members were still could not be solved had leads to the end of Maphilindo.
After that, comes to the born of ASEAN as a channel promising to bring peace and development for the members through good regional cooperation in security and conflict management. By consideration of uncertainty of Cold War and foreign negotiation to end confrontation, ASEAN announced that this association was open to all states in Southeast Asia even invited Burma and Cambodia as original members without thinking of their political ideology. However, they rejected the invitation because anxious of Cold War and feeling doubtful of the association's policy.
ASEAN was succeeding to embrace all states in Southeast Asia and became the main actor in critical global governance after Cold War was ended, Vietnam reunify its country and also Laos had emerged. Therefore, ASEAN was then consist of ten members, where the five states joined ASEAN by following sequent: Date
January 08, 1984
July 28, 1995
July 23, 1997
Laos and Burma
April 30, 1999
ASEAN members were required to sign development framework declaration (Bangkok Declaration) and also other legal declarations in order to cooperate with peace and build prosperity within nations of Southeast Asia. The legal declarations were Zone of Peace, Freedom, and Neutrality in Southeast Asia (ZOPFAN), Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) and Declaration of ASEAN Concord. Besides that, ASEAN also helps to reduce high taxes barriers by introducing ASEAN Free Trade Area for its members.
On October 07, 2003, Bali Concord ll was signed by all members to consist of three pillars in ASEAN Community. They were socio-cultural cooperation, economic cooperation, political and security cooperation. Besides that, ASEAN tends to build mutual understanding, provide assistances between members and enhance long lasting peace and stability by established 2020 vision, ASEAN Charter and also ASEAN Nuclear-Free Zone.
The Heads of States and Governments were required to attend the meeting of ASEAN Summit annually, where it was the highest decision-making organ. The chairmanship of this organ was rotated among ASEAN members based on alphabetical order. Besides that, ASEAN Foreign Ministers in ASEAN Coordinating Council were having twice meeting every year with the purpose of ASEAN Summit preparation by coordinate the implementation of agreements and decisions.
ASEAN Community Council was under ASEAN Coordinating Council. It consists of Economic, Political and Security, and Socio-Cultural Community Council. Each Council was responsible for its meeting designation, summations of reports and implementation of relevant decisions regarding to ASEAN Summit and also coordination of works in different sectors. Besides that, they had their own authorities over Sectoral Ministerial Bodies. In addition, Sectoral Ministerial Bodies were obligated to implement agreements and decisions of ASEAN Summit, improve collaboration in respective fields and also provide report and recommends to their Community Council.
There were three types of secretariat in ASEAN- Secretary General, ASEAN Secretariats and ASEAN National Secretariat. Secretary General was under ASEAN Charter appointed by ASEAN Summit for promote and monitoring the progress of reports and agreements' recommendations and decisions. They were also requested to participating in all meetings. Based on the merit and accorded ministerial status, the position of secretary general were non-renewable in 5-year term. ASEAN Secretariats were responsible on the principle of open recruitment and competition among regions. The purpose was to achieve high standard of incorruptness, ability and efficiency in duties and also coordinate the ASEAN's stakeholders. ASEAN National Secretariats recorded and kept all ASEAN matters at national level. It provides supports and coordinating the implementation of national decision. Other than that, the identity and awareness of ASEAN were also promote by them at national level.
Moreover, each ASEAN member needs to choose a person in its own nations as Committee of Permanent Representatives with the purpose of support and enhance the duty of ASEAN Community Council and ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial bodies. It also helps to secretariats to deals with work and improves cooperation between ASEAN and external partners. Objective
There are several aims and purposes declared by ASEAN:
1. Implement the spirit of equality and partnership between countries to simulate the economic growth, cultural development and social progress with the purpose of strengthen the foundation for a thriving and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nation. 2. Promote respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship to ensure regional peace and stability among countries which comply with the principles of the United Nations Charter. 3. Encourage countries to achieve active cooperation and mutual assistance when deals with common interest matters. Such as,economic, social, cultural and administrative fields. 4. Help each other in the educational, technical, professional and administrative fields by provide training and research facilities. 5. Encourage countries to cooperate more effectively for utilizing their industries and agriculture, improving their transport and communication facilities, increasing their trade and developing a better living standard. 6. Encourage Southeast Asian studies
7. To maintain close and good relationship among existing international and organizations which has the same aims and purpose? Fundamental Principles
All ASEAN member need to act according with the fundamental principle, as provided in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) of 1976: 1. Should respect for the independence, equality, sovereignty, territorial integrity and national identity of all nations. 2. Should not intervene in the internal affairs of one another. 3. Should settle disputes or differences by peaceful manner. 4. Should give the right for every member to lead its own countries free from external interference, coercion or subversion. 5. Should not use threat or force.
6. Should cooperate with each other effectively.
Content of ASEAN
On 7 October 2003, the leader of ASEAN has accepted the Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II) in Bali, Indonesia to establish an ASEAN Community by 2020. The ASEAN Community is three pillars such as Political-Security Community, Economic Community, and Socio-Cultural Community. The three pillars are closely related to each other and strengthen the purpose to make sure the durable peace, stability, and shared prosperity in the region. On 13 January 2007, the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu, Philippines reaffirming to change establish of ASEAN Community and AEC pillars from year 2020 to 2015. Every pillar has its own Blueprint approved at the summit level. Besides that, it’s also together with the Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) Strategic Framework and IAI Work Plan Phase II from year 2009 until 2015. The three pillars are shown in below:
ASEAN Political Security Community (APSC)
This is aims to ensure that citizens and live in ASEAN member countries peace with each other and with the outside world in a fair, democratic and harmonious environment. Content
Year of Establishment
ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (AMM)
To promote perpetual, everlasting amity and cooperation between country ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
To foster constructive dialogue and consultation on issues of political and security interests and ongoing
To make a major contribution to efforts towards confidence- building and preventive diplomacy in Asia- Pacific region ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR)
To promote and protect the human right and the fundamental freedom ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM)
To promote regional peace and stability through dialogue and cooperation in defence and security;
To promote trust and confidence through understanding of defence and security challenges as well as increased transparency and openness ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM)
To cooperate and facilitate in coordinating the field of law on matters of mutual interest and cooperation that promotes law in (a) the exchange of law (b) judicial cooperation (c) legal education and research.
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC)
To strengthen cooperation in the fight against trafficking in narcotics and psychotropic substances, and will facilitate joint efforts in anti-smuggling and customs control.
ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)
This is aims to transform ASEAN into a stable, prosperous and competitive region with equitable economic development and reduced poverty and socio- economic disparities. Content
Year of Establishment
ASEAN Economic Ministers (AEM)
Responsible for the economic cooperation where undertaken by ASEAN ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
Improve the competitiveness of ASEAN as a production base in the world market through the elimination, within ASEAN, tariff and non-tariff barriers Attract more foreign investment into ASEAN
ASEAN Ministers on Energy Meeting (AMEM)
Facilitate cooperation on energy issues
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture & Forestry (AMAF)
To enhance cooperation among ASEAN members to make a lot more competitive at international level ASEAN Finance Ministers Meeting (AFMM)
After Asian Financial crisis in 1997/1998
To measure the various types that have been implemented by ASEAN governments to support domestic demand, restore market confidence and stabilize financial markets. ASEAN Investment Area (AIA) Council
The main economic instruments for realizing the ASEAN free and open investment regime. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals (AMMin)
To promote cooperation in relation to the development of mineral resources in ASEAN ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science & Technology (AMMST)
A decisive and powerful enabler for economic development, education and environmental protection. ASEAN Mekong Basin Development Cooperation (AMBDC)
To promote economic integration among member countries, thereby helping to build an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. ASEAN Transport Ministers Meeting (ATM)
to promote cooperation in matters of transport among ASEAN members ASEAN Telecommunication & IT Ministers Meeting (TELMIN)
An action plan to take advantage of technological advances in Information Communication Technology (ICT) and create digital opportunities for ASEAN and enhance the overall competitiveness of ASEAN. ASEAN Tourism Ministers Meeting (M-ATM)
To promote tourism as a part of the ASEAN economic development Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) and Narrowing the Development Gap (NDG) -
To ensure that the benefits of the ASEAN Community is shared among all member countries of ASEAN ASEAN Sectoral Bodies under the Purview of ASEAN Economic Ministers -
External Economic Relations
Small & Medium Enterprises
Standard & Conformance
Public-Private Sector Engagement
ASEAN Socio- Cultural Community (ASCC)
This is aims to contribute unleash a people- oriented ASEAN Community and social responsibility with the aim of achieving sustainable unity and solidarity among the people and ASEAN Member Countries. It also aims to forge a common identity and build a caring and sharing and inclusive society where prosperity, life and enhanced people’s welfare. Content
Year of Establishment
ASEAN Ministers Responsible for Culture & Arts (AMCA)
To promote effective cooperation in the field of culture through various projects and activities. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Sports (AMMS)
To promote more active cooperation in sports within ASEAN
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Disaster Management (AMMDM)
Concerned to the management of natural disaster
ASEAN Education Ministers Meeting (ASED)
Focus on promoting awareness and ASEAN identity through education ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Environment (AMME)
Focus on environmental sustainability and sustainable development of natural resources COP to AATHP (Conference of the Parties to the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution) 1997
Provided the legal basis for the Regional Haze Action Plan (RHAP) and eliminate or at least control the forest and land fires ASEAN Health Ministers Meeting (AHMM)
To build a community of caring societies safe from the threat of disease and poverty and social phenomena ASEAN Ministers Responsible for Information (AMRI)
To promote effective cooperation in the fields of information, culture and its various projects and activities ASEAN Labour Ministers Meeting (ALMM)
Responsibility for labour issues and human resource development ASEAN Ministers Meeting on Rural Development & Poverty Eradication (AMRDPE) 1997
To achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG):
(a) Advocacy and linkages
(e) Regional cooperation and regional public goods
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science & Technology(AMMST)
A decisive and powerful enabler for economic development, education and environmental protection. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Social Welfare & Development (AMMSWD) 1979
To promote cooperation in social development
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Women (AMMW)
To improve the status of women and has participated actively in regional and international arena related to the advancement of women. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Youth (AMMY)
To act as a body at a higher level to solve social problems common among young children in ASEAN member countries.
Narrowing the Development Gap Initiative for ASEAN Integration This stage is to progressing together through cooperation in development.
The advantages of ASEAN can be determined by three main communities, which is ASEAN Political-Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-cultural community. Generally, ASEAN has successfully nurtured the cooperation in politic, economic, social and cultural. (Mohamad Faisol Keling, 2011) (a) ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)
AEC was created with the aim of advancing regional economic opportunities, facilitating multilateral trading and gaining advantages over the other regions which resulting in ASEAN’s prosperity and well-being. (UK Essays) AEC may bring the advantages to the ASEAN member. AEC will transform ASEAN into a region with free movement of goods, services, investment, skilled labor, and freer flow of capital. To improve the scale efficiencies, dynamism and competitiveness of ASEAN members, it will open more regional cooperation. AEC will also offer the new ways of coordinating supply chains, or access to new markets for established the products. Besides that, AEC will enable easier movement of goods, services, investment, capital and people.
Inside the AEC, it may also help to increase the tourism opportunity. According to the report in the newspaper, the trends were evident at the recent Hub city Forum, which held by the Pacific Asia Tourism Association (PATA). It include more than 100 travel industry executive to discuss the tourism potential, and the government’s spending to upgrade facilities both for leisure attractions.
According to the study by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and Asian Development Bank (ADB) has concluded that, if the AEC 2015 goes well it could generate 14 million jobs by year 2025 and improve the livelihood of 600 million people across all 10 ASEAN members.
It will bring dramatic changes to the ASEAN society; it is because of the single market economy. Generally, the occurrence of a single market will induce more competitors. Because of this it may reducing the price of goods and services. As the business perspective, it may remove the trade barrier, and increase the job opportunities. These may enable the population in the country can enjoy the higher standard of living and it may also help to mitigate the poverty-related problems. (b) ASEAN Social-cultural Community
ASCC is adopted to realize a people-oriented, social responsible ASEAN community with it view of achieving solidarity, unity and a common identity and also to build a sharing and caring society. According to the purpose in ASEAN which is to develop human resources through closer cooperation in education and long-life learning, and in science and technology, for the empowerment of the peoples of ASEAN and for the strengthening of the ASEAN Community. Besides that, to alleviate poverty and narrow the development gap within ASEAN through mutual assistance and cooperation.
The ASCC is to protect the vulnerable groups in the society, such as women, children, person with disability and so on. This may also give the advantages for society. Besides that, the establishment of ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Right (AICHR) gives the advantages to ASEAN members. It helps to promote and protect the human rights and fundamental freedom in ASEAN.
ASEAN Committee on Cultural and Information (COCI) is one of the main bodies under ASEAN Ministers Responsible for Cultural& Art (AMCA). This community helps to promote the effective cooperation in the fields of cultural through the projects and activities. It activities area include the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage, promotion and cooperation on production of cultural and the cultural industry. (Association of Southeast Asian Nation , 2014)
Besides that, the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Sports (AMMS) carrying out some task and give some advantage s for the ASEAN members. They promote the healthy and active lifestyle among the citizens of ASEAN member states through sports activity. They recognize, support and establish the networks of support centers to excellence in sports training in ASEAN.
In education perspective, the ASEAN University Network was established. This AUN help to develop the academic and professional human resources. They also help to promote the information dissemination among the ASEAN academic community and enhance the regional identity and the sense of ‘ASEANness’ among the ASEAN members. Besides that, to narrowing down the development and poverty gap in the rural area, a more concerted effort by member states in the spirit of ‘ASEAN help ASEAN’ has been stressed. For an example, the ASEAN rural Youth Volunteers bring their youth professional volunteers from the region to support the rural communities. (Association of Southeast Asian Nation , 2014)
The science, technology and innovation is a powerful determinants of economic development, educational programmed and protection of the environment. Because of this, the sub-Committee in ASEAN was established to implement the activities in each area. They focus on the programed such as the programmed that related to the food science and technology; biotechnology; meteorology and geophysics; marine science and technology; non-conventional energy research; material science and technology; S&T infrastructure and development etc. The ASEAN leaders recognize the importance of women and their participation in development. Because of this the ASEAN member countries have been promote the status of the women. (c) ASEAN Politic-security Community
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR), ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (AMM), ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM), ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM) and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC) was under the ASEAN political- Security community.
All of these organizations were with the purpose of ASEAN which is to ensure that the peoples and member States of ASEAN may live in peace with the world at large in a just, democratic and harmonious environment. The ASEAN Leaders has been agreed to establish the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC). The objective to form this APSC is to ensure that the countries in the region may live at peace with each other and with the world in a just, democratic and harmonious environment. This ASEAN politic-security Community was created with the objective of maintaining the peace and stability between states, establishing resolution system for multilateral conflicts, and mapping out cooperative framework to deal with both conventional and unconventional security threats. (UK Essays)
ARF can be the center stage to problem solving, dispute and security and security threat as well as nuclear threat among country members in a peaceful manner. ASEAN can make ARF as the main medium to foster political and security relationship between ASEAN and Asia Pacific. (Association of Southeast Asian Nation , 2014) Disadvantages
(a) ASEAN Economic Community
AFTA had affected the domestic industries for the ASEAN member countries. They lost their competitive advantage due to non- tariff or lower import tax. For example, AFTA had affect Malaysia Automobile Industry because their people are willing to purchase slightly higher price to buy a foreign car which they think it may have better quality. As the reduction of demand to the domestic automobile, some less effective company will be collapse due to unable to face to changes in the market demand. At last, destroy the domestic Automobile market in Malaysia. Some of the imported goods have no more quota restrictions or import ban, these production can be imported freely. Eliminate of import restriction also eliminate the country’s competitiveness since all the goods have same level of price and quality. Thailand, as one of the largest farm goods producers is worried about the AFTA-CEPT regime. They believed that non-tariff will causes the low quality product from neighbor country mixing with their high quality product. They are not able to distinguish the price for high quality and low quality farm goods. Again, it will harm the local farm goods industry and also food security. However, there are some industries that need to make an import tax, for example rice, tropical fruits, sugar and others. (UK Essays, 2013) Besides that, industries which survive depends on exporting activity also affected by the AFTA-CEPT, especially in less develop ASEAN member countries. In Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam, these countries are lack of human resources, their labor are unskilled and lack of management. These countries are not able to “fit” themselves in the AFTA. Their export activities will be destroy because they have no competitiveness to against the production of neighbor countries. (UK Essays, 2013) AFTA prove that ASEAN can gain a lot of benefit through non-tariff. However, each member country may not get the equal benefit through AFTA since their economic background is different from each other. Some weaker country like Cambodia is not efficient enough to against the problems that arise from AFTA. Small medium enterprise (SMEs) in less develop countries may not able to adjust their management quickly to meet the market changes. In the same time, countries are not able to protect SMEs due to AFTA-CEPT regime. These countries will end up with domestic economic suffer while other stronger countries are enjoying national gain from AFTA. (Karu, 2014) AEC can attract more foreign investment, but the complicated and less integration of investment procedure can cause them to step back. Firstly, the language used for investment activities in ASEAN member countries is different. Communication, paperwork and documentation with diverse language cause the investment process to be more complicated. Besides, differences of law and regulations in ASEAN countries will also affect the investment activities; it also causes delay in the process of specific application. For example, firms are required to have multiple licenses to expand their business in ASEAN countries; firm structure like amount of shareholder, also differs when firms try to enter into multiple countries; country like Cambodia uses around 104 days to setting up a firm. Other than that, some government policies in ASEAN countries are not capable with the new business environment. Their policies may be outdated or unstable when they trying to catch up with the fast growing business environment. Uncertainty of government policies will give negative perspective to investor. (Tan & Bin Eng , 2014) Furthermore, experts suggest that the ASEAN are lack of leadership in AEC. Leader from each country may have different knowledge and managing skill. If inexperience person taken the chair of ASEAN, they are unable to achieve integration in coming years. Some says that AEC are less efficient in taking action to the issues in member countries. Thus, ASEAN should concern about the leadership issue for better future development. (Karu, 2014) (b) ASEAN Social-cultural Community
The diversification of social cultural in member countries becomes the barrier for ASEAN to step forward to further integration. Member countries are diverse from religion, population, political, and geographical conditions. For example, majority of Thailand’s people are Buddhism but for Malaysian are Muslim; Singaporean promotes Confucianism but Philippines support Catholicism.
Unique geographical structure in each member countries leads to difference of country’s interest. Varied of natural structure also provide different concept and polies among region. Their perspective towards transportation and communication may be differing even in neighborhood countries like Malaysia and Singapore. When there is a new entry of member country, objection voices rise from existing member country. They believed that ASEAN have an important role in representing the Southeast Asia and afraid that the origin objective will be run off by additional membership. The diversity of opinion and interest among member countries leads to difficulty in ASEAN meeting when they are trying to develop a specific agreement. This incident seems like a reverse direction towards the objective of peaceful region that promote by ASEAN. (Lee, 2006) (c) ASEAN Politic-security Community
ASEAN member countries have different political regime, law and regulations which often confuse the law practice. ASEAN should develop legal system as European Union did, which is Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe. The regime can help to differentiate the diverse legal system in all member countries because it gives a direction to the lawyers to move freely among ASEAN. Besides, member countries will not mixing their legal system and enable legal practice to be more affective.
As the lawyers often practicing around the region, ASEAN should develop a stronger regulation regime to further control their movement. Thus, regulatory regime inside the ASEAN should be developing, for example Intra-ASEAN. However, there are large resources needed to conduct the new regime. Member countries in ASEAN will become more burdens in order to achieve stability of law and regulation among region.
Free movement of lawyers among the region will causes the domestic lawyers worry about their value in the market. They need to be more competitive to compete with the existence of foreign lawyers. This disadvantage for domestic lawyer is more obvious especially in those multinational corporate. ASEAN should amend the law and regulations among the member countries to avoid arise of conflict. (Hashimah & Taib)
(a) ASEAN Economic Community
The First ASEAN Summit held in Bali 1976 was the first milestone in ASEAN economic cooperation. The Declaration of ASEAN Concord has set three important instrument of ASEAN economic cooperation: (a) Preferential Trading Arrangements (PTA), (b) ASEAN Industrial Projects (AIP), (c) ASEAN Industrial Cooperation (AIC) schemes. The AIC have been complemented by the ASEAN Industrial Joint Ventures (AIJV). The leaders were also decided to cooperation on energy, food, improve the market outside ASEAN and coordination of positions on global economic issues.
Next, at Kuala Lumpur Summit, ASEAN launch economic cooperation with trading partner which are Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The Dialogue Partner major sources are trade, technology, capital and development assistance which helping ASEAN economies. In 1987, at Manila Summit, ASEAN have regenerated the economic agenda. The leaders have agreed to widen the coverage of Preferential Tariff Arrangement (PTA). Besides that, ASEAN also make a decision to attract the private investors by making the ASEAN Industrial Joint Ventures (AIJV) Scheme more flexible.
In Singapore Summit Declaration of 1992, the ASEAN Ministers have agreed the Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme (CEPT) for the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). This agreement has including the unprocessed agricultural products and covered manufactured products. In 1996, ASEAN Industrial Cooperation (AICO) scheme was established to promote the cooperation in manufacturing activities between ASEAN Member States companies. In this scheme, AICO products may have the tariff rates of 0-5 percent.
Besides that, in June 1996, ASEAN- Mekong Basin Development Cooperation has developed because of the potential to be a place to cooperate with the donor countries such as Republic of Korea, Japan and others. In addition, ASEAN also support the “natural growth areas” which namely as Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT), Singapore-Johor-Riau Growth Triangle (SIJORI), and Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA). The presence of infectious diseases in animals will affect the development in the livestock industry in the region. The diseases may lead to economic losses in Member Countries. ‘The diseases include: FMD, Classical Swine Fever, Newcastle Disease, and Avian Influenza.’ (Major Achievements, 2009). ASEAN has established standards for vaccines used in a livestock industry to reduce the spread of the diseases. The procedure and guidelines related to vaccines productions was set up to ensure the animals are healthy and safety. There is also cooperation in finance and banking which facilitate the capital market in ASEAN Member Countries. The cooperation in Member States including insurance matters, banking, monetary policy, human resources in financial services as well as banking. Cooperation in private sector may also effect the economic growth in ASEAN. ASEAN Senior Economic Officials and the representatives of ASEAN Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CCI) have established. Following with the cooperation in tourism, the main purpose is to promote the ASEAN region as tourist destination. ASEAN has attracted over 30 million tourists in 1995 and it became world’s top 15 tourist destination. Others than that, ASEAN Optical Fibre Submarine Cable Network and Satellite Communication Development have established to works together with the Member States in transportation and communications. Development of rail link also started from Singapore to Kunming in southeast China, passing through Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar and Vietnam. Forest is also important in terms of environmental, sociocultural and economical benefits for ASEAN region. ASEAN have been work together with international organizations and third parties as well as Dialogue Partners. Besides that, the ASEAN Forest Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) has been developed under the ASEAN German Regional Forest Programme (ReFOP). CHM was providing electronic database and e-discussion in support of cooperation in ASEAN Forestry. ASEAN have developed an East Asia Economic Caucus (EAEC) to strengthen the cooperation among the East Asian economies. These is an informal consultative forum which given the Member States chances to discuss on the economic issues. (b) ASEAN Social-cultural Community
Biotechnology was important which can increase the food productivity. ASEAN has adopted the Guidelines on the Risk Assessment of Agriculture-related Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) which gives the Member States have common understanding on scientific evaluations for the release of agriculture-related GMOs. ‘To enhance and strengthen the capacity building, ASEAN, in collaboration with the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Southeast Asia has organized a series of training workshops on the use of the ASEAN Guidelines on Risk-Assessment of Agriculture-related GMOs for the regulators and decision makers. Three training workshops on Safety and Risk Assessment of Agriculture-related Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) were organized in Singapore (2001), Kuala Lumpur (2002), Bangkok (2003), and Jakarta (2004).’ (Major Achievements, 2009).
In addition, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has given a big impact which makes the Member Countries work close together to control the animal diseases. AMAF has recognizes that the cooperation between multi-sectoral and multi-agency approach among Members to ensure the effective in handling the problems. Others than that, ASEAN also establish the “ASEAN Animal Health Trust Fund” (AHTF) in November 2006 to control the diseases. The Fund has become important to drawn intention to support and promote control of animal diseases in region.
ASEAN also promote and protect the rights and welfare of women, children and disabilities people. ASEAN has implemented the Work Plan to Operationalize the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the ASEAN Member States. Besides that, the Convention on the Rights of the Child also establishes to protect the children from being hurt and there are also programs on social services and recovery for disability person. There are also promoting the awareness on gender equality, women’s contribution and participation in all fields which can lead to the successful.
Furthermore, ASEAN look serious on the matter of global environmental issues. There are promoting a green and clean environment by not destroy the natural resources. ASEAN has established Multilateral Environment Agreement to push forward the awareness of the environment and strengthen the Member States cooperation. Besides of the environment, it ensures that all Member States have affordable healthcare and encourage a healthy lifestyle for the people of ASEAN. They also exchange the knowledge of integration of quality and safe Traditional Medicine, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TM/CAM) into the national health system. (c) ASEAN Politic-security Community
ASEAN have the objectives to achieve the regional stability and peace, assistance and collaboration with the Member Countries effectively.
On 27 November 1971, Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN) Declaration which known as Kuala Lumpur Declaration of 1971 had signed by the five ASEAN Foreign Ministers in Kuala Lumpur. The ZOPFAN Declaration promise all ASEAN Member Countries to "exert initially necessary efforts to secure the recognition of and respect for Southeast Asia as a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality, free from any manner of interference by outside Powers," and "to make concerted efforts to broaden the areas of cooperation which would contribute to their strength, solidarity and closer relationship."
First ASEAN Summit, in Bali on February 1976, the ASEAN leaders have signed three major documents: (a) the Declaration of ASEAN Concord, (b) Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in Southeast Asia, and (c) the Agreement Establishing the ASEAN Secretariat. The ASEAN Concord state that the Member Countries should have to expand the political cooperation by adopted the harmonization of views. However, Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in Southeast Asia creates the principle to solve the problem of intraregional disputes and cooperate effectively within the Member Countries, do not interfere in the internal affairs and respect each other’s sovereign rights. TAC also provides a code of conduct for the peaceful settlement of dissension which establish of a High Council that include a ministerial representative from each High Contracting Parties. ‘To this day, the TAC remains the only indigenous regional diplomatic instrument providing a mechanism and processes for a pacific settlement of disputes’ (Political Achievement, n.d).
Following the end of the cold war, the first meeting of ASEAN Leaders meets in Singapore in 1992. The Leaders stated that "ASEAN shall move towards a higher plane of political and economic cooperation to secure regional peace and prosperity". The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was established because ASEAN decided to facilitate the external dialogues on enhancing security in the Asia-Pacific region. ASEAN Summit in Bangkok on 15 December 1995, Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ) was born. The leaders of ten Southeast ASEAN countries have signed the Treaty. The purposes of the Treaty are to facilitate towards general and complete disarmament of nuclear weapons, promote international security and peace. In addition, it also protects from environmental pollution and harm from radio-active waste and others toxic materials.
ASEAN Current Issue
ASEAN Complies Its Metrology Law to International Standard
ASEAN Legal Metrology Working Group standardized their metrology laws against the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) best practices. The benchmark shows that most Aqua Metrology Systems (AMS) have established their Metrology Law in accordance with international best practices. The 22nd Meeting of the ASEAN Consultative Committee for Standards and Quality (ACCSQ) Working Group on Legal Metrology which will hold from 19 to 20 November at ASEAN Secretariat was according on the findings. According to Dr. Manfred Kochsiek, a facilitator for Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), AMS is helping ASEAN Legal Metrology to meet the international standards. Nevertheless, there are still in the progress, it is better to broaden the benchmarking to include degrees or sub-laws. The recommendations of OIML on the technical regulations will be premeditate by the Working Group because it will also benefit the industry in ASEAN. Germany and PTB buttress the regional economic integration in ASEAN through ACCSQ and its related Bodies towards the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint. In order to decrease technical barriers to trade by harmonizing standards and technical rules which are an essential basis for ASEAN’s regional economic integration, PTB launched a project called “Improving Quality Infrastructure in ASEAN”. (ASEAN Secretariat, 2014) ASEAN and EU to Enhance Region-to-Region Cooperation
On the 19 November 2014, H.E. Herman Van Rompuy, European Council President, met with the Committee of Permanent Representatives to ASEAN (CPR) at the ASEAN Secretariat. CPR expressed the honour to welcome President Van Rompuy and their gratitude for the EU’s valuable support and contribution to the SEAN community building efforts. ASEAN take EU advanced level of regional integration as a reference in formulating its vision for ASEAN Community beyond 2015.
President Van Rompuy said that EU has long-standing ties with ASEAN in strengthening its relationship with ASEAN to a new height. “The efforts and achievements made in ASEAN Community building had brought tangible advantages to the region and beyond,” he said. Even though the visions between ASEAN and EU for regional integration are different, but both regions are regarded as the most successful regional organisations in the world. He declared EU will continue to support ASEAN’s regional integration beyond 2015, especially the precious experience and lessons learned in the process of European regional integration and the achievements that EU has made. In addition, they had exchange different views on a number of regional and global issues, method and means to forge practical cooperation.
Over the period of 2014-2020, EU has promised to double financial support to the ASEAN-EU cooperation programmes in the amount of EUR 170 million. In order to strengthen the relationship with ASEAN, President Van Rompuy reiterated the EU’s acceptance towards ASEAN, which including set up EU’s dedicated diplomatic mission ad accreditation of ambassador to ASEAN by 2015, and EU’s wiliness to resume the negotiations on a region-to-region free trade agreement with ASEAN after 2015. (ASEAN Secretariat, 2014)
Case Study (ASEAN to Cambodia)
Cambodia joins ASEAN on 30 April 1999. Cambodia is the latest member that joins ASEAN. It is the tenth member in ASEAN. Cambodia was suspended up to year 1999, because of its internal political struggle. The main reason that blocked Cambodia from joining as an ASEAN member state is the political instability in year 1997.
The ASEAN membership gives Cambodia the opportunities to polish its reputation in global context, enhance human rights, economic development and tourism sector development. These help Cambodia increases it reputation, lead to stability and development to Cambodia when it became one of the members in ASEAN.
Cambodia meet many of the obstacles when it trying to join ASEAN. In the other hand, Cambodia got many benefit from ASEAN. In terms of economic and political interest and it also got more power in the international communities. Based on the analysis, Cambodia obviously gains the benefits when it became the member of ASEAN. History
‘In 1979, Cambodia was governed by Vietnam-backed government, and the fighting escalated by three factional parties: Khmer Rouge, FUNCINPEC and KPLNF, and the Vietnamese-backed regime.’ (Law Teacher, nd) It has brought a big impact on the ASEAN regional security. So, ASEAN has put some pressure to Vietnam which support by the international community to withdraw from Cambodia. After the controversy, Cambodia and other regional states have become member of ASEAN to maintain peaceful and security of the region. According to the Law Teacher, ‘after the Paris Peace Accords, Cambodia paved its way to be ASEAN guest from 1993 to 1995, ASEAN observer from 1995 to 1996, and finally full member on April 30, 1999.’ (Law Teacher, nd) In October 23, 1991, Cambodia has connection with the ASEAN countries by signing the Paris Peace Accords for internal peace. ASEAN also agreed to help Cambodia to figure out the solution to resolve the internal issues in Cambodia and encourage being one of their members. In 23-24 of July, 1993, Cambodia is being guest in the 26th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting in Singapore. At that time, ASEAN wanted Cambodia be part of them to maintain stability, peace and prosperity in Southeast Asia. ‘In the position of chairman of the meeting, Singaporean Minister of International Affairs, Wong Kan Seng, said that ASEAN would provide Cambodia with the hope of reconstruction of peace, security, and political stability which would tighten the good relations between Cambodia and ASEAN’ (Law Teacher, nd) Again, Cambodia has been invited to attend for the 27th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. Cambodia has showed up as the statuses of observer because of it highly admire the ASEAN accomplishment. In December 1994, ASEAN Secretary-General, Dato Ajit Singh has visit to Cambodia to help Cambodia filling formal application and assist them before become observer. 1n January 24, 1995, Cambodia has finally become formal ASEAN observer. This status may lead Cambodia to access the full membership of ASEAN. In the 28th AMM meeting, Cambodia was playing role in observe the ASEAN activities and capacities. In May 1996, Malaysian Foreign Minister, Abdullah Badawi has against Cambodia entry to ASEAN and followed by the Singaporean Prime Minister Goh Chok who. Although there are many fight against Cambodia joining ASEAN, but ASEAN has decided that admit Cambodia in early 1997. The political instability in Cambodia does not become the reason that not joining ASEAN. Besides that, ASEAN still wanted Cambodia be one of them before 21st century. To become member of ASEAN, there are some basic requirements that Cambodia has to follow. ASEAN has established ASEAN Troika consisting of three Ministers of Foreign Affairs from ASEAN members such as Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia to help Cambodia to accomplish the requirement. Although It not successful, but it has decrease the tension and bringing back the internal stability in Cambodia. ‘After the national election in 1998, ASEAN and other countries put immense pressure on opposition leaders Prince Ranariddh and Sam Rainsy to form a coalition government with Hun Sen because this would grant Cambodia international legitimacy again and open the way for it to become a full member of ASEAN.’ (Law Teacher, nd) In April 30, 1999, Hanoi, Cambodia has join ASEAN to be 10th member when Cambodia has meet the requirement. Objective
1. Reconstruct into a peace, security and political stability country. 2. Improve political, economic and socio-cultural development.
Content of Cambodia in ASEAN
ASEAN Political Security Community (APSC)
ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)
ASEAN Socio- Cultural Community (ASCC)
ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (AMM)
ASEAN Economic Ministers (AEM)
ASEAN Ministers Responsible for Culture & Arts (AMCA)
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Sports (AMMS)
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR)
ASEAN Ministers on Energy Meeting (AMEM)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Disaster Management (AMMDM)
ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture & Forestry (AMAF)
ASEAN Education Ministers Meeting (ASED)
ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM)
ASEAN Finance Ministers Meeting (AFMM)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Environment (AMME)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC)
ASEAN Investment Area (AIA) Council
COP to AATHP (Conference of the Parties to the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals (AMMin)
ASEAN Health Ministers Meeting (AHMM)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science & Technology (AMMST)
ASEAN Ministers Responsible for Information (AMRI)
ASEAN Mekong Basin Development Cooperation (AMBDC)
ASEAN Labour Ministers Meeting (ALMM)
ASEAN Transport Ministers Meeting (ATM)
ASEAN Ministers Meeting on Rural Development & Poverty Eradication (AMRDPE)
ASEAN Telecommunication & IT Ministers Meeting (TELMIN)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science & Technology(AMMST)
ASEAN Tourism Ministers Meeting (M-ATM)
ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Social Welfare & Development (AMMSWD)
Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) and Narrowing the Development Gap (NDG) ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Women (AMMW)
ASEAN Sectoral Bodies under the Purview of ASEAN Economic Ministers ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Youth (AMMY)
In conclusion, Cambodia must join in all the pillars in ASEAN because they are the one of the member’s countries in ASEAN. Besides that, it is their responsibility to join all the ministers meeting. The meeting held to solve the problem among the country and is an exchange program to change the ideas. Others than that, the ministers meeting also strengthen the relationship between the ASEAN members countries. Advantages
It brings the advantages for Cambodia after it becomes the member of ASEAN. The advantages of Cambodia when join ASEAN can be determine by three communities. This included ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), ASEAN Political-securities Community, and ASEAN Socio-cultural Community. Cambodia has been recognized in global context after becoming the member of ASEAN. The reputation of Cambodia becomes good in global context after it join ASEAN. Cambodia can gain a lot of experiences from the development of agriculture and industry in terms of enterprise management, science, and technology of others ASEAN countries. (a) ASEAN Economic Community
After Cambodia becoming the ASEAN member, its country economic was developed rapidly. Generally, economic structure is an important indicator of development level of country. According to the economic term, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has flowed in investment form ASEAN to Cambodia significantly since year 1999. Economic development is very important for a nation. It same goes to Cambodia. Economic growth may increase the standard living in Cambodia. Based on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme for ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), due to the reducing it import tariff and removing non-tariff barriers, Cambodia is able to attract more regional foreign investors. Cambodia enjoys its economic growth; it may provide more jobs opportunities for Cambodia’s resident.
The tourism sector in Cambodia was developed after it becomes the member of ASEAN. The development of tourism sector in a country can increase the local jobs opportunities. It same goes to Cambodia. Tourism sector is the second largest source of foreign currency earning for Cambodia after the garment sector. It occurs increasing in 5 years’ time it approximately increases from $830million in year 2005 to $1800 million in year 2010. (Hgov, 2011) The developments in tourism sector in Cambodia create the job opportunities for their people. Cambodia attract more foreign tourists with its ancient temples and natural resorts as well as it political stability in regional and global context. Most of the visitor is come from the Vietnam and from ASEAN partners such as China, Japan, and South Korea. (Law Teacher , 2014) The increasing in the tourism sector may develop the economic in Cambodia. This shows the important of tourism sector in the mission of economic development.
Besides that, it also strengthens its production capacity in the global market. The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) which is start from year 1992 with the objective to create single production and market place of the region to be competitive in the world market. It becomes another economic advantage for Cambodia. According to the AFTA, Cambodia and also all the ASEAN members has the opportunities to enjoyed the free flow of goods, services, trade, and investment by reducing and eliminating the tariff barrier. Besides that, to reducing the high tariff, ASEAN has established the Common Effective Preferential Tariff as known as CEPT scheme. Cambodia received many of the advantages because of this. For example, in year 2004, FDI from Japan has been flow swifty to Cambodia in the figure of $3.5 million and $30.9 million in year 2007. (UK Essays)
The rapid expansion of Cambodia’s trade with its ASEAN partner is because of the reduction of tariff on ASEAN. According to the Hang Chuon Naron, Secretary-General of the supreme National Economic Council of Cambodia, the growth of intra-ASEAN trade is occurring from a small base: despite its expansion, in 2008, export to ASEAN accounted for only 7 percent of the value of Cambodia’s total exports.(CCFC, 2012) The ASEAN membership made Cambodia experienced the development in term of trade. The Cambodian trade had increased from $1966 million in 1998 to $4499 million in year 2003 and $8887 million in year 2009. Besides that, the exports in Cambodia also increase from $800million in year 1998 to $2076 million in year 2003 and $3901 million in 2009. (TE, 2011) (b) ASEAN Socio-cultural Community
Training and human resource development is important for Cambodia since it needs more skillful and highly-educated human resources. Every year, Cambodia sends its government officials and also general public to join training courses in other ASEAN members or ASEAN partner.
After Cambodia becoming the member of ASEAN, Cambodian has been receives human resource training from old ASEAN members and ASEAN+3 in the framework of Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI). The training that includes is international relation, diplomacy, trade, management, economic, law and so on. It enables Cambodian government officials and other participants to have a chance to raise the ideas and learn new things from ASEAN. (TE, 2011)
During the last decades, Cambodia was upgrading it country human resources through the ways of exchanging knowledge, science, experience and technologies within the ASEAN members. For example Cambodia human resources may join the study tour, workshops, and seminars which involving ASEAN affairs both locally and abroad. To improving the students’ knowledge on various aspects which is related with the ASEAN and global issues, Cambodian youths was provided many of the academic opportunities to join the ASEAN activities such as AUN Education Forum, ASEAN Varsities’ Debate, and AUN Youth Speaking Contest and so on. It gives the advantage for Cambodia people when it became one of the members in ASEAN. (c) ASEAN Political-securities Community
Cambodia has established its diplomatic relation with all ASEAN member countries which promoted closed and cooperative relations with other ASEAN members. Cambodia was contributing the efforts in order to solve the political and security issues. The ministers agreed to cooperate in the global effort to fight the terrorism through international conventions through law enforcement, defence intelligence, immigration and customs and financial systems.
Besides that, the representatives at the meeting was exchanged the view on the issues of conflict in the Middle East, terrorism, trafficking in persons, drugs, economic development and so on. (Nuclear Threat Initiative) All of these give the advantages to Cambodia to find the solution to overcome the problem that Cambodia meet. It is because they may exchange their idea to help each other to solve the problem. Disadvantages
(a) ASEAN Economic Community
The journey of Cambodia becomes more challenging after Khmer Rouge regime. Khmer Rouge regime is the policies that control by Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), or Khmer Rouge during year 1975 to year 1979. Even though the policies only stand around four years, but it causes nearly two millions of Cambodian dead tragically. People are dead in execution, disease, starvation and overwork. A Khmer Rouge policy had ignored people’s life and raises a lot of murdering; prison is crowded and graveyard full of dead body (Leitsinger, 2014). The effect of Khmer Rouge regime sustain until today. Cambodia is often says as a country that lack of human resources and less development. Thus, it is difficult for Cambodia to meet ASEAN regime such as AFTA. When AFTA are implemented, Cambodia had been cut down their budget directly because import taxes are one of their biggest contributions in national income. They force to face budget deficit since the import may be more than export. As compare to others member countries in ASEAN, Cambodia is not competitive enough and have serious disadvantage due to their unskilled worker and outdated technology, even they are rich in natural resources. They may not fulfill the objective of ASEAN implementing AFTA. (ASEAN and History of Cambodia’s Membership)
In addition, AFTA also affect the foreign trade and foreign investment. With the reduction or eliminate of import taxes, companies in Cambodia are likely to import from foreign country. The incentive to purchase or produce locally becomes lower. The volume of trade and investment will gradually reduce until Cambodia policy maker take action toward AFTA. (Asean And History Of Cambodias Membership Economics Essay, 2013) (b) ASEAN Political-securities Community
Integration of Southeast Asia escalates the flow of transnational crime among region. Experts discovered that there is significant negative influence towards Cambodia by joining the ASEAN. Cambodia is a country that weak in law regime and lack of law practicing. They are not capable to control the threatening of crime cross around the country. The report shows that they are having a critical situation in sexual tourisms, drug and human trafficking. Cambodia is both sources and destination of human trafficking; at here, men, women and children are turn into force labor and sexual intercourse. Besides, drug trafficking are flow from Burma to Cambodia, then to the neighbor countries. Thus, it causes insecurity and instability arises among the region. (ASEAN and History of Cambodia’s Membership)
Furthermore, ASEAN also affect the law and regulation of Cambodia indirectly. One of the principles of ASEAN was not to interfere the policies of member countries. However, when there is a development of new framework for integration, Cambodia might have to amend their domestic law and regulation to coordinate with the agreement. Cambodia is not freely control over their law and regulation since they are obliged to comply with the objective of ASEAN. (Asean And History Of Cambodias Membership Economics Essay, 2013) Achievement
In 2012, Cambodia was ASEAN Chair and has successfully addressed difficult issues. Cambodia has successful to increase the reputation and cohesiveness of ASEAN. For instance, ‘Cambodia presided over ASEAN’s adoption of the long-awaited ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and the Bali Concord III Plan of Action (2013–17), which outlined a common platform for ASEAN in its external relations. Cambodia successfully convened the first ASEAN Global Dialogue immediately after the 21st ASEAN Summit.’ (Sarith, 2013)
When Cambodia was ASEAN chair, ASEAN has developed the ASEAN Institute for Peace and Reconciliation; it also launched the ASEAN Regional Mine Action Centre in Cambodia. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) between ASEAN and India, South Korea, New Zealand, Japan, China and Australia has created. Cambodia has accomplished to get EU, Brazil and UK to join the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC).
In 2002, Cambodia was ASEAN chair for first time. It put effort to get the ASEAN foreign ministers and China to accept the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) to help settle the controversy peacefully to ease the tension between Member Countries. When the second time of Cambodia as ASEAN Chair, ASEAN and China has accepted the statement on 10th anniversary of DOC and prevent any activities that can increase the tension in the South China Sea.
Besides that, Cambodia is able to be maintained an economic growth at around 7 percent in 2012 which was the fastest in region. According to Phay Siphan, the agriculture, real estate, tourism, foreign direct investment and industrial sector have increase. (Sovan, 2013). Its economy is supported by four pillars such as tourism, real estate, agriculture and garment export. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is establishing to expect that there are many opportunities for entrepreneurs and given benefits to the Member States as well as increase the competition within regions. According to the Rithy Sar, Chairman of World Bridge said that ‘Our company will benefit with a free flow of human resources, goods and services, capital.’ (Sithika, 2012)
The most important political achievement of Cambodia in ASEAN was Kampuchean conflicts which get support from international community. On October 23, 1991, the Paris Conference on Cambodia have signed on the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict which to smooth out the way for the formation of the Cambodian Supreme National Council (SNC) in which all four factions participated and the elections are under supervision of the United Nations Transitional Authority on Cambodia (UNTAC). (Political Achievement, nd) Thereby, the Asia-Pacific region and Southeast Asia has more peaceful. ASEAN Current Issues in Cambodia
China's loans vital to building SE Asian connectivity: Cambodia According to a senior Cambodian official, China has offered large loans worth over $20 billion at the 9th East Asia Summit which are important to regional countries in their connectivity construction. The offer distributed 10 billion dollars loan for ASEAN members and another 10 billion dollar special loan for the regional infrastructure development which is set up by China Development Bank Kao Kim Hourn, minister attached to Prime Minister Hun Sen, spoke “China always gives priority to countries in Asia. This is good news for Cambodia, ASEAN and Asia”. The Cambodian prime minister has given full support to China’s initiative on a treaty on good-neighbourliness, friendship and cooperation between China and the ASEAN members.
“China’s development assistance is crucial in funding infrastructure development projects connecting Southeast Asia with China,” said by Chheang Vannarith, a senior researcher of the Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace. This situation will improve economic development, reduce poverty and further link China and Southeast Asian countries. Besides that, it helps to promote strategic trust building. (Xinhua, 2014) Cambodian PM Urges students to enhance abilities as ASEAN community nears In order to compete in regional job markets as the ASEAN will turn into a community by the end of 2015, Hun Sen, Cambodian Prime Minister, on 1st November 2014, appealed to students to study hard to develop their own abilities and skills. “In the context of globalization, competitions in economic, politics, technologies, and so on are fierce and tense,” he said. The key foundation for sustainable socio-economic development was building human resources with quality, ability, talent, and potential.
The key for Cambodia to move forwards with other ASEAN members states in accordance with the spirit of “One Community, One Destiny” in 2015 was education with quality, the prime minister said. In addition, Hun Sen declared Cambodia has set a long-term vision to become an upper-middle-income nation in 2030 and a high-income nation in 2050. (Xinhua News Agency, 2014)
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