APA STYLE MANUAL – 6th Ed.
HOW TO USE
APA requires the use of in-text parenthetical citations, not footnotes. These in-text citations lead readers to complete bibliographic information included in the alphabetical list of references at the end of the paper. In-text citations can be handled in different ways. If you use the author's name in the sentence, simply include within parentheses the date of publication after the author's name: Barrow (1974) found . . . . However, if you do not incorporate the author's name into the sentence, include the author's last name and publication date within parentheses: . . . (Barrow, 1974). Either approach may be used regardless of the number of authors. If a source has two authors, cite both names every time the reference appears in the text. . . . (Dewdney & Ross, 1994). Dewdney and Ross (1994) found. . . . For a source with three, four, or five authors, cite all of the authors the first time a reference occurs. For any subsequent occurrences of the same reference, use the first author’s name with “et al.” signifying the other authors. Follow this with the date of the publication. Omit the year from each subsequent occurrence of the same reference falling within the same paragraph. (Smith, Rubick, Jones, & Malcolm, 1995) Smith et al. (1995) argued that. . . . (Smith et al., 1995) For a source with six or more authors, include only the first author's name followed by "et al." Peffer et al. (1997) contended. . . . (Peffer et al., 1997) If a source has a group (corporation, government agency, association, etc.) as an author, the name is usually spelled out in every text citation. However, if the name is long and the abbreviation is easily recognizable or understandable, spell it out for the first text citation and abbreviate for subsequent citations. First text citation: (Association of College and Research Libraries [ACRL], 1996) Second or subsequent citations: (ACRL, 1996) ACRL (1996) found that. . . .
In citing a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, etc. after the publication year. Abbreviate page or chapter. In addition, please refer to section 6.03 (Direct Quotation of Sources) in the APA’s Publication Manual. Example 1: He stated, “The impact of technology on student learning is best observed when conducting focus groups” (Gallati, 1988, p.38), but he did not go into much more detail. Example 2: Gallati (1998) contended that “the impact of technology on student learning is best observed when conducting focus groups” (p.38). Example 3: Gallati (1998) discovered the following: The impact of technology on student learning is best observed when conducting focus groups. Small, independent studies allow the researcher or instructor to witness hands-on experiences students have with technology and ways they employ various forms of technology to enhance projects, research papers, and group presentations. In addition, students willingly discuss their experiences – positive and negative - with the researcher, thus documenting the ways in which technological advances have helped or hindered their experience as a student. (p.38) When citing information from a Web page that doesn’t provide page numbers, use the paragraph abbreviation (para.) to indicate the paragraph being cited. If the Web page doesn’t have visible page or paragraph numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. (Myers, 2000, para. 5) (Lehman, 2001, Recommendation section, para. 2)
General Guidelines for Organizing APA-style References Lists In APA style, the alphabetical list of works cited is called "References." As you prepare your list of references, follow these guidelines: 1. 2. Double space each entry and use hanging indentation (the first line of an entry isn't indented, but every subsequent line in the entry is indented five spaces). Alphabetize the list of sources by the author 's (or editor's) last name; if...
References: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Note: This document was created based on our understanding of the 6 edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. If you notice anything that should be changed, modified, etc., please contact (419) 372-2362. Thank you.
L. Rich KN Rev. 3/09 RS Rev. 8/09
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