Republic of the Philippines
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
College of Language and Linguitics
Sta. Mesa, Manila
Resuello, John Paul C.
Atty. Georgina Peniaranda
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. Definition of AI and related terms
II. AI Research
A. Areas of research
1. Problem Solving
2. Natural Languages
3. Expert System
B. Problems encountered during research
1. Knowledge Representation
3. Goals and Sub goals
III. Characteristics of AI
A. Pattern Matching
B. Understanding Language
C. Experience Learning
D. Information processing Psychology
IV. Applications and Predictions
V. Effects of AI
A. Definition of AI and Related terms
Different persons or institute can define Artificial Intelligence or AI in many ways, depending on their point of view. According to the book of H.L Capron entitled “Computers: Tools for an Information Age, Artificial Intelligence is defined as a field of study that explores on how computers can be used to do tasks that require certain human characteristics such as, instinct, intelligence, and imagination. It researches about the possibility of making computers think and act like human beings. According to Capron’s book, computer scientists often define AI in a more simple way. They define it as the study of how computers will do things that at the present time man can do better. They’ve included the phrase “at the present time” because AI is an evolving science. Evolving in a way that once a problem or flaw in the AI research was solved or fixed, its connection or involvement in the study is moved off. One good example is the game of chess, which was once a mighty challenge for the AI researchers because they must make the computer assess the move of its opponent and act on it. But now, since scientists already solved the problem and developed many chess programs, chess is ruled out as one of the agendas in the AI research.
According to Collier’s encyclopedia, another definition of AI is that it is the branch of computer science wherein the main objective is to make machines mimic or copy the way a human thinks about a subject. It also contains some human characteristics like creating its own decisions, and recognizing patterns. It is the system that has the same level of intelligence, or even higher, as humans have. It also encompasses some other branches of computer science, such as cybernetics, knowledge-based systems, and natural language processing that is closely allied to research in fields of psychology, and linguistics.
Here are the definitions of some terms related to AI:
1. Computer Science – The study of the development, operations, and applications of computers.
2. Cybernetics – The comparative study of communication and automatic control processes in mechanical or electronic systems, and biological systems.
3. Neural Networks - An information processing system that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurones) working in unison to solve specific problems.
4. Turing Test - A test performed to determine a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior. 5. Microprocessor - A single circuit or device performing most of the basic functions of a central processing unit or CPU.
According to the article “Ancient History of AI” by Bruce G. Buchanan, the idea of Artificial Intelligence is said to have started in the Greek Mythology, where Hephaestus, the blacksmith of the Greek gods, who manufactured mechanical servants that were assigned to do different...
Bibliography: Allen, Robert. Chambers Encyclopedia English Dictionary (1994), p. 69
Buchanan, Bruce G
Capron, H.L. “Artificial Intelligence Field” Computers: Tools for an Information Age, (1998), p. 424-426
Davies, Katharine. “Future Computers” The Computer Establishment (2004), p. 451-453
Oak, Manali. “Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence” http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-artificial-intelligence.html, (September 22, 2011)
Reader’s Digest Association Limited. “Computers with Human Senses” Reader’s Digest: Did You Know? (1990) p. 214
“Recent Stories on AI Research” http://aaai.org/AITopics/AINews (February 25, 2012)
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