Artificial Intelligence

Topics: Artificial intelligence, Expert system, Fuzzy logic Pages: 6 (1338 words) Published: November 21, 2013
Artificial Intelligence

machine is said to be intelligent if it deceives a human into believing that it was a human. What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is concerned with building machines that can act, react and adapt themselves in response to a variety of situation and display behavior at least comparable to normal Human Intelligence History & Origin of AI

The history of AI is as old as human history. Primitive man invented games like chess as today we play computer games. The idea of creating an intelligence being was proposed and discussed in various ways by writers and philosophers centuries before the computer was invented. The Roman poet Ovid wrote a story of a beautiful woman brought to life, later forming the fable “MY FAIR LADY”. In the industrial ages, Mary Shelley and Dr. Frankenstein manufactured a man from separate components and brought him to life through electricity. By the 1960’s, fiction was beginning to mirror the goals of the most ambitious AI researchers. The films like Blade Runner Terminator, AI and many others showing gadgets and robots present a vision of cyborg machines almost indistinguishable from humans. It was easy to develop animal-like intelligence but to embed human intelligence became difficult for the scientists. Future & Scope of AI

The researches in AI have resulted in various Industrial and Commercial sys. The following successes are a verdict to the immense contributions in the past & present and also promise a bright future for humans and AI environments in the future: a.Economic Monitoring system

b.Satellite Tracking system
c.Space Navigation system
d.Aircraft Monitoring system
e.Mil Expert systems
f.Vehicle Navigation sys
g.Speech Synthesis & Recognition sys
h.Immortal Robot sys
i.Non-Volatile Memory sys
The future environments of AI are meant to make a man’s life easier. They promise to make the world a better place for humans in future


The Perception
It involves a step by step process:
a.Capturing the Image in a Numeric Array
b.The Detection of Lines and Boundaries
c.The Depth Perception
d.Description of Texture
e.Decoding the Color
f.Looking for a Match of the Model
g.Similarity Functions
h.Touch Perception

Representing Perceived Knowledge
Logical Representation
It uses expressions in formal language to represent the knowledge required. Facts are expressed as simple propositions; true / false, on / off and more precisely 1/0. For a statement like “It is raining and I am hungry”, both the conditions can be true or false or combination of both. This is expressed using the AND / OR operator for situation P & situation Q.

Procedural Representation
These are declared instructions for problem solving. It contains a set of rules that alter the facts in the database. These rules are generally in the following form: IF < CONDITION > THEN < ACTION >

Network Representation
They capture knowledge as a graph in which nodes represent relationships and associations. Classes can also have sub-classes that inherit properties in a similar way. Structural representation
Information is organized in complex knowledge structures. Slots in structures represent attributes where values can be placed. Structured information can capture complex sit or objects, for example eating a meal in a restaurant or the contents of a room in the hotel. Such structures can be linked together as networks. Frames and Scripts are the most common types of structured representation. Searching for Perceived Knowledge

11. Three types of search for acquiring the perceived knowledge are possible: Random Search
It explores any memory path at random. It often fails to give results and skips info present in memory. It may also retrace a path it has tried before. Also called the “drunkard’s walk”, this search might reach its goal quickly by chance, but it is the least efficient way to go about the...
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