Artificial Intelligence We have come so far…
Some might say that Artificial Intelligence was first seen in ancient history with mythological gods. Others believe the idea was created in early 1940’s. These are still debated between many scientists. Artificial Intelligence means much more than an idea to those who have dedication their lives to this science. In this paper I will be discussing the history, progress, and future of Artificial Intelligence, or as some know it (A.I.). Shall we began?
As some scientist argue, the beginning of artificial intelligence was first seen in mythology. Shall we take a look? In mythology, there were creatures that were made out of objects. For example, the story of Pygmalion and Galatea. Pygmalion was a sculptor who was so into his creations he shunned women. One day he created a sculpture of a woman, who he named Galatea. He found the beauty in this sculpture overwhelmingly lifelike. He prayed to the Goddess Aphrodite to beg her to turn his new sculpture into a real woman so he could be happy. Aphrodite became interested in the sculpture of Galatea and went that night to see the creation for herself. When Aphrodite arrived she saw the beauty of the artwork and was overly joyous because it seem to resemble herself. She granted Pygmalion his wish and he and his newly living creation lived happily ever after. The basis of this story is the same as of the more recent ideas of artificial intelligence.
Artificial Intelligence is defined as “the study and design of intelligent agents” (Goebel, Poole, & Mackworth, 1998). In 1941 an invention revolutionized every aspect of the storage and processing of information. That invention, developed in both the U.S. and Germany was the electronic computer. (Dumm, Snitzer, & Dyess, 2011) The electronic computer gave way to many ideas. Scientist began to develop theories and find ways to evolve the computer. In 1955, John McCarthy coined the word “Artificial Intelligence”. McCarthy was intrigued about the ideas that were developed and advantages that were probable because of this new idea. In 1956 John McCarthy, who is referred to as the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming. He invited them to Vermont for "The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence." From that point on, because of McCarthy, the field would be known as Artificial Intelligence. Although not a huge success, (explain) the Dartmouth conference did bring together the founders in A.I., and served to lay the groundwork for the future of A.I. research. (Dumm, Snitzer, & Dyess, 2011) The first generation of A.I. researchers made these predictions about their work: * 1958, H. A. Simon and Allen Newell: "within ten years a digital computer will be the world's chess champion" and "within ten years a digital computer will discover and prove an important new mathematical theorem." (Crevier, Daniel, 1993) * 1965, H. A. Simon: "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do." (Crevier, Daniel, 1993) * 1967, Marvin Minsky: "Within a generation ... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved." (Crevier, Daniel, 1993) * 1970, Marvin Minsky (in Life Magazine): "In from three to eight years we will have a machine with the general intelligence of an average human being." (Crevier, Daniel, 1993) Simon and Allen Newell were correct. There was a computer, named Deep Blue who defeated the world chess champion in 1996. Their estimation was many years off from the original statement they had purposed happening by 1968. H.A Simon on the other hand was completely wrong. Yes there are machines that can do many things, but not one even today that can perform the way a man can. As of today we have not been able to solve the...
References: * Dumm, T., Snitzer, B., & Dyess, A. (2011). ORACLE Education Foundation: Think Quest. Retrieved from Oracle Education Foundation : http://library.thinkquest.org/2705/history.html
* Goebel, R., Poole, D., & Mackworth, A
* Norvig, P. (2012). Artificial Intelligence. New Scientist, Vol. 216 Issue 2889, pi-8. 8p.
* AI set to exceed human brain power, CNN.com (July 26, 2006)
* Kurtzweil 2005, p
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