Summary of the Article:
“Forces for and Resistance to Organizational Change”
The article “Forces for and Resistance to Organizational Change” was written by Fred C. Lunenburg from Sam Houston State University and was published in the National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal’s Volume 27, Number 4, 2010. In this article Mr. Houston discussed the factors which force and resist the change and how to handle them in order to achieve the desired change. Change is a continuous process, school organizations continuously change in response to a variety of forces coming from both inside and outside the school. For school leaders, the challenge is to anticipate and direct change processes so that school performance is improved. There are several internal and external important factors which are responsible for change. The external forces for change originate in the school's environment. They include the marketplace, government laws and regulations, technology, labor markets, and economic changes, whereas, pressures in the internal environment of the school district/school can also stimulate change. The two most significant internal pressures for change come from administrative processes and people problems. On the other hand, there is a human tendency to resist change, because it forces people to adopt new ways of doing things. In order to cope with this recurring problem, school leaders must understand why people resist change. The most powerful resistances to change include uncertainty, concern over personal loss, group resistance, dependence, trust in administration, and awareness of weaknesses in the proposed change. To better understand resistance to change, Kurt Lewin developed the concept of force-field analysis. He believes that we should think about any change situation in terms of driving forces or factors acting to change the current condition (forces for change) and resisting forces or factors acting...
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