“Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence.”
Plato, Aristotle’s teacher believed reality was not seen in the physical realm of particular things, but in the intelligible realm with “forms”, each as a Parmenidean one. Each being eternal and unchanging they were perfect while the physical realm’s objects were imperfect reflections of the forms. Aristotle agreed there were forms but disagreed that forms are coextensive with the real; the sensible realm was not a reflection of the higher forms but the objects give way to though and forms. Reality is not split among sensible, and intelligible, but one real world of actual things where forms are an abstract to “substances.” Aristotle also believed metaphysics must show reality changes and forms cannot explain change since they themselves are unchanging and the ultimate reality. As Plato describes forms, they give way to physical objects have differential participation and they all have some form of likeness which make them all fall under their certain form. Aristotle, believing in the reality as the physical world, would compare this to his idea of every particular thing must have two things, “whatness” and “thisness.” Whatness picks out universal properties of a thing. It makes a thing the thing that it is. The whatness is identified with the substance’s form. The thisness of a substance pertains to its individuality. Aristotle also compared a thing’s “whatness” to form or the physical shape the thing has and its “thisness” to matter or the possibility of serving of a purpose. This is also described as actuality and potentiality in which a bricks form or actuality is that of rectangular hardened clay and it can potentially have the purpose or be the matter of a wall. This was change was explained by Aristotle and change has four causes. Those causes are the material cause, what the thing is made of, the efficient cause, what brought it to be the way it is, the formal...
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