1. Beringia was a land bridge roughly 1,000 at its greatest, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia during the Pleistocene ice ages. It is believed that approximately 25,000 years ago, Beringia enabled the population of the Americas from an emigration from Asia (founder effect).
2. Clovis a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture that appeared at the end of the last glacial period, and are characterized by their namesake “Clovis points” and bone/ivory tools. They appeared roughly 13,500 to 13,000 years ago. Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much North America (excluding Canada) and even into Northern South America. The significance of the Clovis culture is that they were the first human inhabitants of the New World and can be considered to be the ancestors of all the indigenous cultures of North and South America
3. Eastern Woodlands culture (American Indians before Columbus)
The Eastern Woodlands are a cultural area of the people of North America. Their footprint extended roughly from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, and from the Great Lakes region to the Gulf of Mexico, which is now the eastern United States and Canada. One of the prominent groups were the Iroquois and the culture were later involved in colonial affairs. In Chapter 1, Howard Zinn mentions how the early explorers remarked that the natives on the mainland (including the above) were generous beyond belief but with the onset of colonization and the horrible relationships between native and alien, that characteristic soon ceased.
4. Mississippian Society (American Indians before Columbus) One of the most well-known groups is the Cahokia, a Mississippian community based in Illinois who were mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States. Mississippian Society had a time span from 800 CE to 1500 CE and began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley. They are historically significant for their large-scale construction and intensive maize agriculture, which allowed support of larger populations and craft specialization. They also created widespread trade networks, beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, Southeastern Ceremonial Complex also known as the Southern Cult. In Chapter 1, Howard Zinn mentions how the early explorers remarked that the natives on the mainland (including the above) were generous beyond belief but with the onset of colonization and the horrible relationships between native and alien, that characteristic soon ceased.
5. Iroquois, Algonquian tribes
The Iroquois were also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse. The Iroquois was a league of the Five Nations, as it was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations. However, after Tuscarora nation joined the League in 1722, the Iroquois became known as the Six Nations. Most archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometime between about 1450 and 1600 by the legendary figure Hiawatha, and the League is still in existence today. Originally, it was based in what is now the northeastern United States, primarily in what is referred to today as upstate New York west of the Hudson River and through the Finger Lakes region. The Iroquois have made several subtle influences such as "The Iroquois Influence Thesis" as several experts believe in the plausibility of the development of the Articles of Confederation or United States Constitution can be traced back to the governing system of the Iroquois. During the French and Indian War, the Iroquois sided with the British against the French. The Algonquian Tribes were a rival group to the Iroquois who lived in the New England area as well. They were the main obstacles to the spread of Euro-American settlers and sided with the French during the French and Indian War.
6. Renaissance was a cultural movement of the resurgence of Classical Learning, the development...
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