AP US HISTORY- MIDTERM REVIEW GUIDE
Chapter 1: New World Beginnings
Shaping North America
10 million years ago: Mountains formed in North America (Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, and Appalachians). >
2 million years ago: Ice Age in North America, and glaciers shaped the continent. >
35,000 years ago: Land bridge created between Eurasia and North America. >
10,000 years ago: Sea level rose and America was separated from Eurasia again.
The People of the Americas
Sophisticated ancient civilizations: Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs. o
Advanced agriculture (maize), elaborate cities with commerce, and made astronomical observations. >
Pueblo people: built irrigation from corn fields.
Mound builders: lived in the Ohio River Valley.
Other large settlements: Mississippian culture, and Southwest Anasazi people. >
“Three Sister” farming: Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee.
Iroquois: sustained robust military alliance.
Discoverers of the Americas
Scandinavian Norse: landed on Northeast North America in 1000 AD, but abandoned settlements. >
Christian Crusaders: searched for a shorter route to Asia for goods such as silk, drugs, perfumes, and spices. >
Marco Polo (1295): stimulated desire for cheaper route to Asia with tales of China. >
Portuguese (1450): developed caravel and began to sail down West African coast, set up trade for gold and slaves, and began plantation system. >
Bartholomeu Dias: rounded the tip of Africa.
Vasco da Gama: reached India.
Spain: shaping into a modern nation.
Printing Press (1450) spread scientific knowledge.
Compass eliminated uncertainties at sea.
Christopher Columbus and the “New World”
Christopher Columbus: an Italian who was given 3 ships by the Spanish king and queen. >
Oct. 12, 1492: Columbus landed in the Bahamas (although he thought he had landed in the Indies), and he called the natives “Indians”. >
New World stimulated Europe’s market, capital, and technology with Africa’s...
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