18 November 2014
Between the years of 1800-1860 America began to see the world in a more secular view. Because of the Second Great Awakening there were two major reform movements known as the abolition movement and the religious reforms. First I will talk about how The Second Great Awakening was a movement which was a reaction against the liberal beliefs of Thomas Jefferson and other diest and led to religious reforms. The Second Great Awakening started mainly in the south and worked its way up north and then to the rest of the country along with encouraging evangelism, this lead to the many new organized churches and conversions. The Second Great awakening mainly benefitted the Methodist and the Baptist church when preachers taught at camp meetings. Camp meetings consisted of long lessons which took up to 4 hours each and up to 25,000 people would arrive to these events hosted by preachers such as Peter Cartwright and Charles Grandson Finney. The key concept was that salvation was a matter of choice and taught people to go make decisions based off of feelings and emotions rather than logic and reason. This brings us to our first group of religious reformers known as the shakers
The shakers were founded in England in 1770 by Ann Lee. This group got there name from the “shaking Quakers” as they would shake the tremble, dance and speak in tongues because spirit of God seemed to pulse their bodies, and along with many other new religious revivals was inspired by the second coming of Christ. In addition to this the Shakers also believed that they had to live a life isolated from the world so they began to form small Valdovinos 2
communities they viewed as utopias as a result of urban growth . The final rule which the shakers had to practice was celibacy, because when mother Ann had a husband she had four children who all died in child birth so this meant that it was a sign from God to be celibate. Another religious group which emerged during the 19th century was the Church of Jesus Christ Latter-Day Saints also known as the Mormons. The Mormons were a group that was primarily organized by Joseph Smith in 1830 as a result of the angel Moroni visiting him in his bedroom. Along with the shakers the Mormons were not very accepted amongst their peers so due to persecution Smith and his followers traveled from New York to Ohio to Illinois where Smith was murdered. Eventually they migrated to Utah under the direction of Brigham Young. The final religious revival which occurred during the 1830s was the Oneida Community. The Oneida community was founded in 1834 by John Humphrey Noyes, as he progress with his ideas he realized he needed money to fund his project. This is where Harriet Holton began to financially support Noyes. With the money Noyes bought a printing press and began published a newspaper called “The Witness”. The Oneida community had306 at its peak when they originally derived from 86. The Oneida community had very distinct practices such as complex marriage, male continence, confession, and the millennial kingdom but one practice that was seen in all of the other religious revivals including both the Shakers and the Mormons was equality amongst both sexes. The reasons all religious revivals all practiced equality amongst the sexes was to create a perfect society in which they resembled the life of Jesus. Sadly this meant they could not drink alcohol.
The next reform movement I will talk about would be the abolition movement also known as the anti slavery movement. America in the 1800s had an amazing economy due to the fact that slaves were ones producing all of the goods causing the slave population to go from 1 million to 4 million in only 60 years; it was at this time in which most people began seeing slavery in a different perspective. The abolition movement was derived from the Second Great Awakening because it taught the...
Grimke, Angelina. "Appeal to the Christian Women of the South." 1836. Speech.
Garrison, William Lloyd. "Declaration of Sentiments of the American Anti Slavery Society." 1833. Address.
"The Shakers." N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2014.
"The Oneida Community." - New York History Net. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2014.
Douglass, Frederick. “Narative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave.” 1845
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