Apush Final

Topics: Montgomery Bus Boycott, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks Pages: 6 (1906 words) Published: April 23, 2015
Research Question: To what extent was Martin Luther King Jr. responsible for the success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56?

By Marioly Jimenez, Word count: 1666

Plan of Investigation, Word count: 156
The plan of this investigation is to determine the extent to which Martin Luther King’s actions and decisions caused the success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The primary method of this investigations will be to compare witnesses’ testimonies to each other from before the success of the bus boycott to after its success to see which of King’s actions coincide. Afterwards these actions will be evaluated for their responsibility by seeing how they affected the boycott’s success. Additionally, this investigation will study other witness accounts to provide information about how other people reacted to King’s speeches, and how action taken by the public was responsible for the success of the boycott. Finally, the investigation will take into account historian’s analysis about King’s actions. The scope of this investigation will focus on how the public was moved by King’s actions. How they reacted will then be used to evaluate how king caused the success of the boycott.

Summary of Evidence, Word count 502
Martin Luther King was the president and chairman of a “negotiating committee” that was set up and composed of about a dozen people, delegated to represent the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) in the viewpoint discussions with white officials. He devoted much of his time to this role and was the spokesman authorized to deliver the African American opinions at conferences. MIA had two other committees including the financial and transportation committees, these played a large role in coordinating the boycotts and were all largely led by King (Garrow). •On Dec. 7, 1956, King was asked to appeal for volunteer drivers at a mass meeting, he accepted the offer and the crowd’s response was better than expected since about 20 people donated their services and cars for the project (Newman). •The finance committee branch of MIA requested them to setup a speakers bureau to get additional funds, King was chosen as one of the main people to speak before groups such as civil rights groups and organizations outside Montgomery and after his speeches the amount of donations contributed to the grand total always increased (Jackson). • King introduced the idea of carpools to avoid riding buses and decided to organize the boycott, if someone wanted to donate money it would go straight to the MIA who would in turn help subsidize the costs of the carpools (King). •On Dec 8 1955, king negotiated with Jack Crenshaw, the bus company lawyer who rejected the demand that the bus hire Negro drivers for predominantly Negro routes. On December 17 another meeting took place and King opened with concession: that the company accepted applications from qualified African Americans and hire them when positions became available (Fairclough). •On December 7, 1955 the white people were expecting the boycott to collapse on the first rainy day but King realized that the way to avoid this was through skillful organization (Bruyneel). •He was an able representative of the MIA with the African American public, he had a firm commitment to nonviolence and to the cause of civil rights, and he presented the program in a warm and convincing manner which in return won the allegiance of African American masses at Montgomery. This confidence and support allowed the MIA to help them. They also wanted King to speak for them because he did not make them feel manipulated (Sims, The Walking City: The Montgomery Bus Boycott). •The homes of King and E.D Nixon were bombed in early 1956. There were injunctions obtained by city officials against the boycott in February 1956 that indicted over 80 boycott leaders under a law made in 1921 prohibiting conspiracies that interfered with lawful business. King was convicted after...

Bibliography: Bruyneel, Kevin. "The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial and the Politics of Collective
Memory." History and Memory 26.1 (2005): 89-91. JSTOR
Coleman, Cristopher. "Social Movements and Social-Change Litigation: Synergy in the
Montgomery Bus Protest." Law and Social Inquiry 30.4 (2005): 663-67. JSTOR
Fairclough, Adam. "Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott." By Stewart
Burns. Journal of Southern History64.4 (1998): 781-83. JSTOR
Garrow, David J. The Walking City: The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956. Martin Luther
King, Jr
Graetz, Robert S. "The Foot Soldiers of the Montgomery Bus Boycott." Journal of Blacks in
Higher Education (1999): 132, JSTOR
King, Coretta S. My Life With Martin Luther King, Jr. N.p.: Henry Holth & Co (J); Rev Sub
edition, 1993
Newman, Mark. Rev. of Martin Luther King Jr., by By John A. Kirk. Journal of American
Studies 39.3 (2005): 563-64.JSTOR
Sims, George E. Rev. of The Walking City: The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956. Martin
Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. , by By David J
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