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Apush Dbq
12
In the broadening of business described here, what shifts in manufacturing took place and what business innovations occurred, and what effect did this have on the general distribution of goods in America? To the nineteenth century innovations of interchangeable parts and breaking down complex operations into simple steps, the twentieth century added standardization and the time-and-motion analyses pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor to make the assembly line highly efficient. Union officials were alarmed that workers were becoming nothing but adjuncts to the machines, but increased production was its own justification for the science of factory management.Industrialists & employers wanted cheap labor, land speculators and politicians hoped would
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Why was this "the most profound economic development in mid-nineteenth century America"? 1820s factory system in shoe industry, by 1830s spread throughout Northeast. By 1860 value of manufactured goods roughly equal to agricultural goods. Largest manufacturers located in the Northeast, large amount of people employed

15 How did technology and industrial ingenuity prepare the way for the expansion of industry and the growth of the American economy? Developed industries relatively immature, fine items came from England. But by 1840s rapid machine technology advances, sophisticated textile industry. Technology and demand led to factories- began in New England textile industry, large water-driven machines increased production

16
Who were the "merchant capitalists" and what was the significance of their transformation into "industrial capitalists"? Individual + small merchant capitalist companies dominated, but some larger businesses gave way to corporations- combined resources of large number of shareholders. Grew 1830s b/c states passed easy incorporation laws. Limited liability meant stockholder risked only value of investment if corporation

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