Chapter 15 (1861-1865)
Crucible of Freedom: Civil War
Mobilizing For War
-Both North and South were unprepared for war.
-North had a small army of sixteen thousand men, mostly in the West.
-One-third of the Union officers resigned to join the Confederacy.
-No strong president since James Polk and Lincoln was viewed as a “yokel”
-The federal government had levied no direct tax structure
-Never imposed a draft.
-No tax structure
-Two tiny gunpowder factories
-Unconnected railroad lines.
-Recruitment and Conscription
-Largest army organization created in America
-2 million in Union
-800,000 in Confederate
-Recruitment depended on local efforts than national or state. -Citizens opened recruiting offices in hometowns, held rallies, and signed up volunteers.
-Union instituted examinations for officers.
-As casualties mounted, military demand soon exceeded the supply of volunteers. -Confederacy enacted the first conscription law: All able-bodied white men aged eighteen to thirty-five were required to serve in the military for three years. -The act antagonized the southerners. Opponents charged that the draft was an assault on state sovereignty. -20-Negro law exempted an owner or overseer of twenty or more slaves from service. -New conscription law of 1864 required all soldiers to stay in the duration of the war.
-After recruitment, the Confederacy had to supply it.
-South relied on arms and ammunition imported from Europe, weapons from federal arsenals, and guns captured on the battlefield. -Assigned ordnance contracts to privately owned factories like the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, provided loans to establish new factories, and created government-owned industries like the giant Augusta Powder Works in Georgia. -Clothes were more difficult:
-Southern soldiers frequently went without shoes
-Supplying the South was difficult:
-railroads that fell into despair or were captured
-an economy that relied more heavily on producing tobacco and cotton than food.
-Union invasion early in the war.
-the Impressment Act was passed, which authorized army officers to take food from farmers at prescribed prices. It also empowered agents to impress slaves into labor for the army
-Union supplement was easier
-The Enrollment Act of March 1863 made every able-bodied white male citizen aged twenty to forty-five eligible for draft into the Union army.
-Offered two means of escaping the draft
-Paying a $300 fee to the government.
-Financing the War
-The federal government met its revenue needs from tariff duties and income from the sale of public lands.
-Gross national product rose to 15%
-Neither the Union nor Confederates wanted to impose tax, but did so in 1861. -Both sides turned to war bonds: to loans from citizens to be repaid by future generations. But must be paid in gold or silver coin. -Both sides agreed to print paper money.
-Legal Tender Act issued $150 million of “greenbacks”
-Greenbacks would only work if the public has confident in the government that issued it. The Union officials made the greenbacks legal to pay most public and private debts. But the Confederacy never made it legal, and suspicions rose. By printing more money in the south, it suffered from an inflation rate over 9,000 percent! -The National Bank Act established that banks could obtain a federal charter and issue national bank notes. It gave private bankers the right to purchase war bonds.
-Political Leadership in Wartime
-Democrats wanted to prosecute the war without conscription, without the National Bank Act, and without the abolition of slavery. -Lincoln became a Radical Republican
-Jefferson Davis (Confederate President) suffered from frequent resignation in his cabinet. His main objective is to secure the independence of the South from the North. -The Confederate Constitution guaranteed the sovereignty...
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