1. Truman foreign policy between 1945-1952-
I-Aid to Greece and Turkey to defend against communist pressure S- Support free people resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. 2. U.S. economic expansion post-WWII-
I-Savings from WWII, expansion defense spending, improved technology, baby boom, expansion of consumer society. 3. 1950’s Red Scare-
I-Fear of communist spies undermining the gov’t and misdirecting foreign policy 4. American & Soviet relations between 1945-1950-
I-America to prevent communism created a big tension between America and the soviets. 5. U.S. actions in relation to international political events- I-Iron Curtain-threatening Western Europe, Truman Doctrine- aid to countries threatened by communism, and the Marshall plan- rebuilding Europe after WWII. 6. Truman’s fair deal-
I-Domestic Legislative Plan
7. Korean War-
I-The conflict between Communist North Korea and non-communist South Korea S-The United Nations helped South Korea.
8. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka-
I-Supreme Court declared the concept of “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites was unconstitutional. 9. John Foster Dulles “new look”-
I-He called for “open skies” over both U.S. and the Soviet Union; called for reliance on nuclear weapons. 10. Montgomery Bus Boycott & Greensboro lunch counter sit-ins- I-Montgomery Bus Boycott is a protest by African Americans against racial segregation in Alabama. -Greensboro lunch counter sit-ins is a violent protest which led to Woolworth’s department store chain reverse policy of racial segregation in southern U.S. 11. Characteristics of 1950 homogeneous culture-
I-There were plastic credit cards, new lifestyles of leisure and affluences, new technology of television, new popular music. 12. U.S. interventionism in Iran (1953) & Guatemala (1954)- I-To take out the democratically-elected President Jacob Arbenz, and install some dictator who was more friendly to U.S. 13. Economy during the Eisenhower years-
I-Empowered President to extend economic that wanted to help to resist communist aggression. 14. Eisenhower’s “modern Republicanism”-
I-It was a theory to help the poor and aged, while it trying to limit the powers of central government. 15. Crisis during Eisenhower presidency-
I-Social Harmony; construction of interstate highway system
16. Characteristics of the Kennedy Administration-
I- much of his domestic program was held up by congress
U.S. space program was committed to landing astronauts on moons Trade expansion act set up a tariff reduction process.
Kennedy use presidential pressure to control prices.
17. Black Muslims & Black Power movement-
I-Advocated for equal rights and racial integration
18. Betty Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique-
I-Discusses women roles
19. Johnson’s Great Society Programs-
I-Won same noteworthy battles in education and healthcare.
20. Taft-Hartley Act (1947)-
I-It was passed to check the growing power of labor unions and close all union shop. 21. Warren Court rulings-
I- When Chief Justice Earl Warren was initially appointed to the Supreme Court, people assumed that he was a conservative who would continue to support conservative values and goals. S- He turned out to be a bit of a wild card, and under the Warren Court, the Supreme Court's focus shifted from property rights to personal rights, with decisions based as much on ethical values as legal precedent. 22. Feminist Revolt of the 1960s-
I-Sparked by a clash between the demands of traditional role of women as wives and mothers and realities of employment 23. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-
I-It led to congress gibing the president a “blank check in Vietnam” 24. President Johnson’s policy in Vietnam-
I-Gradual military escalation to force North Vietnam to negotiate 25. Causes for the long economic boom from WWII to 1970s- I-It was fueled by reduced military expenditures.
26. The Tet Offensive-
I-It was the most serious blow to Lyndon Johnson’s Vietnam policy. 27. The Sunbelt-
I-The states of the south and west that became focus of economic boom after 1950 28. Nixon’s policy of “Vietnamization”-
I-It was involved in withdrawing 50,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time and gradual takeover of South Vietnamese. 29. Origins of the Cold War-
I-It laid in fundamental disagreement between United States and the Soviet Union over postwar arrangements Eastern Europe. 30. George f. Kennan’s policy-
I-Policy of containment framed a coherent approach for America in Cold war. 31. Responsibility for starting the cold war-
I-It rests with the United States and Soviet Union
32. Truman Doctrine-
I-It stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by communism. 33. Marshall Plan-
I-It was called for substantial financial assistance to rebuild Western Europe. 34. Baby boom generation-
I-The huge leap in birthrate in decade and a half after 1945 35. Reason for Truman’s firing of MacArthur-
I-When MacArthur begin to take issue publicly with presidential policies. 36. Berlin Airlift-
I-Joint effort by U.S. and Britain to fly food and supplies into West Berlin after Soviet blocked off all grounds routes into the city. 37. Student non-violent coordinating committee (SNCC)-
I-They formed to keep sit-ins movement organized
38. Bracero Program-
I-U.S. labor recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. S-The program stimulated immigration for Mexico.
39. Cause for southern democrats to split from party in 1948- I- Because President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights. 40. Senator McCarthy & McCarthyism-
I-McCarthy one who damage free speech and fair play; McCarthyism is the term for making ruthless and unfair charges against opponents. 41. Cause for McCarthy’s anticommunist crusade to end-
I-When he alleged that there were communists in the army.
42. Eisenhower’s 1952 campaign promise in regard to Korea- I-Personally go to Korea to help to end the Korean War.
43. Reason for selecting Richard Nixon as Eisenhower’s VP in the 1952 election- I-Reason was as a concession to the hardline anticommunists. 44. Eisenhower’s attitude toward racial justice-
I-He had advised against integrating the armed forces.
45. Eisenhower’s largest public works project-
I-The interstate highway system was larger and more expensive. 46. Kennedy-Nixon 1960 presidential debates-
I-The debate was about television
47. Alliance for progress-
I-It was intended to improve the level of economic well-being in Latin America. 48. Kennedy’s strategy of “flexible response”-
I-He called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the scope and importance of a crisis. 49. 1962 trade expansion act-
I-The act reduced American tariffs.
50. Kennedy’s reason for moving slow for racial justice- I-Because he needed the support of southern legislators to pass his economic and social legislation. 51. Cuban missile crisis-
I-A stand-off between U.S. and Soviet Union brought by threat of nuclear weapons. 52. Kennedy’s forced racial integration-
I-He forced racial integration of the University of Mississippi. 53. Johnson’s greatest strength over Kennedy-
I-While in office, Johnson managed to propose and see passed over three hundred pieces of legislation, legislation included: student aid, transportation, public housing, the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Medicare and Medicaid, and Affirmative Action (Ibid). No president before or since has matched his legislative success. 54. 1968 democratic national convention-
I-Witnessed a police riot against antiwar demonstrators outside the convention hall. 55. 1968 major-party candidates-
I-The Republican candidate was Richard Nixon, the Democratic candidate was Hubert Humphrey 56. 24th amendment-
I-The common use of poll taxes to inhibit black voters in the South. 57. Martin Luther King, Jr,: Stokely Carmichael; Malcolm X- I-MLK black leaders in 1960s; Malcolm X and advocate of Black power; Stokely was who favored black separatism. 58. Nixon doctrine-
I-It stated that US would stay true to all of their existing defense commitments but Asian and other countries would not be able to rely on large bodies of American troops for support in future. 59. American armed forces in Vietnam-
I-It composed largely of the least privileged young Americans. 60. 26th amendment-
I-It lowered voting age to 18 and was passed in 1971.
61. Nixon’s policy of détente-
I-It was designed to improve relations between the Soviet Union and China. 62. Pentagon papers-
I-It exposed the deception by US presidents and their administrations that led US into Vietnam War. 63. George McGovern 1972 Democratic presidential nominee- I-He appealed most strongly to the antiwar movement.
64. Senate Watergate hearings-
I-One of most damaging revelation for Richard Nixon was his conversations in person and on the telephone had been recorded on tape. 65. President Carter’s foreign policy-
I-It emphasized the importance of human rights; isolationism 66. 1973 War Powers Act-
I-The act limit Presidential powers in undeclared war; required the president to report to congress any commitment of American troops. Short Answers