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Approaches in teaching music at primary level

Background of Dalcroze Approach
Émile Jaques-Dalcroze ( 1850 – 1950) was a Swiss composer, musician and music educator who developed eurhythmics, a method of learning and experiencing music through movement. According to Dalcroze (1921), Emile Jacques-Dalcroze was a multi-faceted performer and pedagogue who designed a method for teaching music and rhythm, and with this method an entire school of thought. In the early twentieth century, Dalcroze created a three-pronged approach to the study of music using eurhythmics (the study of rhythm), solfège and improvisation. This method of teaching explores the relationship between mind and body and the movement of the body through time and space. According to De Kock (1989:115), “Solfege is aimed at developing the sense of musical pitch and tone relations and the ability to distinguish tone qualities”. On the other hand Improvisation is aimed at developing the capacity of free invention whilst Eurhythmics is set to give students the feeling for musical rhythm through body movement. In the Dalcroze eurhythmic plan is the use of the piano on which the teacher improvises cues for the instant body response, in the free expression of the basic music concepts such as dynamics, tempo and pitch. The Dalcroze method helps a child develop the expressive possibilities of his body ‘in his own way’. The Dalcroze plan expresses individuality. Like Kodaly, Dalcroze also accepted that rather ear training and rhythmic movement start before instrumental study. The idea here is that what has been kinaesthetically experienced will be more easily translated onto an instrument at a later stage. The Dalcroze Approach According to Dalcroze, music is composed of sound and movement. Sound [itself] is a form of movement. Dalcroze sought to unify mind and body in the study of rhythm, which for him consists of movements and breaks in movement. It is because of the connection between sound and movement



References: Campbell, P. S (1991). Lessons From The World: A Cross Cultural Guide to Music Teaching andLlearning. London: Scheimer Books. De Kock, D (1989) Music for Learning. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman (Pty) Ltd. Campbell, P.S (2008) Musician and Teacher, New York. WW Norton and Company. De Kock, D (1989) Music for Learning, Cape Town. Maskew Miller Longman (Pty) Ltd. Gray, E. (1995) “Orff-Shulwerk: Where Did it come from?” The Orff Beat. Centenary Issue XXIV. Shamrock, M (1997) “An Integrated Method” Music Educator’s Journal 83 (May 1997): pg. 41-44 JOSTOR. University of Arizona Music Library, Tucson, AZ. http//www.jstor.org/stable/3399024 Brief historical background of Suzuki

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