CaMilo Hernández II
This paper was prepared for Introduction to Psychology, PSY1012, taught by Professor Nilda I. Rosario
Before we can talk about Applied Psychology we first need to briefly explain Psychology. Psychology, the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, attempts to uncover why and how we do what we do. Different theories of psychology govern how different psychologists approach research into human behavior. Whether it is the click wheel of your iPod, your laptop’s touch-screen, or computer systems applications for disabled users, many types of applied psychological methods were used to design and develop them. Applied Psychology refers to the use of psychological principles and research methods to solve practical problems we humans encounter everyday. Designing computer interfaces like a mouse that glides without wires or the new Wii game console, is only one way to apply psychology in today’s world. The largest applied areas are in clinical and counseling psychology, but there many others, such as community or social psychology, educational psychology, military psychology, health psychology and space psychology (Coon, & Mitterer, 2010). In this research paper I will briefly discuss six diverse fields that impact business, the environment, education, law, sports and human factors. Applied Psychology
In business- Industrial/Organizational I/O Psychology study the behavior of people at work and in organizations (Aamodt, 2006). Though the goal of I/O Psychology is to increase the productivity and well being of employees, there are two approaches on how this can be accomplished. The industrial approach (the “I” in I/O psychology) focuses on determining the competencies needed to perform a job, staffing the organization with employees who have those competencies, and increasing those competencies through training. The organizational approach (the “O” in I/O psychology) creates an organizational structure and culture that will motivate employees to perform well, give them the necessary information to do their job, and provide working conditions that are safe and result in an enjoyable and satisfying work environment. When these approaches are applied, the worker’s tasks or duties are enhanced thus improving their quality of work life through the training of leaders, better matching of people with the right job, and improving organizational structure. There are three major areas that are vital for the success of the I/O psychologist: leadership, job satisfaction and personnel psychology. We all know that the key to a successful organization is its leaders. Leadership can be thought of as a capacity to define oneself to others in a way that clarifies and expands a vision of the future (Friedman, 2001). The improvement of working culture conditions need to have some sort of rationale behind it and to better understand the rationale we must consider the two basic theories of leadership: Theory X and Theory Y. One of the earliest attempts to improve worker-task efficiency was made in 1923 by Frederick Taylor. To speed up production, Taylor standardized work routines and stressed careful planning, control and organization. Today, versions of Taylor’s approach are called scientific management. Leaders that tend to be task-oriented are said to be Theory X leaders. As mentioned before Theory X is grounded primarily in scientific management and is concerned only with work efficiency. Theory X leaders tend to assume that workers must be guided into being productive to provide a maximum output at a lower cost; as a result they alter conditions they believe will affect workers such as time schedules, production quotas, bonuses and so on. In Taylor’s time, when many large companies were manufacturers with large assembly lines, theory X leaders tend to wish that people would act more...
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