Application of Maslow's Hierachy in Needs

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation, Psychology Pages: 19 (6350 words) Published: February 5, 2011
Is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs a Valid Model of Motivation?
by
Melanie Colvin
Fangfang Rutland
May 8th, 2008

Table of Contents

I. Executive summary
II. Introduction
III. Maslow and Maslow's theory
a. Biographical sketch
b. Basic structure of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory c. Inspiration for “Hierarchy of Needs” theory
IV. Application of Maslow's theory
a. Maslow's theory in business
1. Workplace management
2. Marketing
b. Maslow's theory in psychotherapy
c. Maslow's theory in the healthcare industry
d. Maslow's theory in social science
V. Theories derived from Maslow
a. Motivation-Hygiene Theory
b. Wilber
VI. Empirical studies on Maslow's theory
a. Supportive findings
1. Porter
2. Alderfer
3. Reiss & Havercamp
4. Ghiselli & Johnson
5. Guttman Scale Test
b. Non-supportive findings
VII. Maslow's theory across cultures
VIII. Summary and Conclusion

Executive Summary
This is paper attempts to answer the question “Is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs a Valid model of Motivation?”. We begin by reviewing Maslow’s life and the basic structure of his Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Then continue by explaining what inspired his theory. The use of this theory is examined as applied in business, Psychotherapy, the healthcare industry, and social science. Similar theories are reviewed including Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Ken Wilbur’s theory as interpreted by Rowan. Then we take a look at Empirical testing of Maslow’s work to try to determine if his model is valid. A study by Hall and Nougian did not support Maslow’s theory. However, there are some studies that show support or partial support. A literature review includes reviews of studies done by Porter, Alderfer, Reiss and Havercamp, and Ghiselli and Johnson as well as the Guttman scale test. Although some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is restricted by national and cultural boundaries, we look at its use across cultures. Finally we reach our conclusion that Maslow’s hierarchy is a valid model of motivation, though some modification might be warranted. It is a simple but powerful concept that can help us understand, develop and utilize human potential. Introduction

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is more than half a century old since its first publication of Personality and Motivation in 1954. Many theoretical and practical applications were developed on the basis of Maslow's theory (Brenner, Carmack, & Weinstein, 1971. Rowan, 1999. Sirgy, 1986. Shermer, 2004. Seeley, 1992). The scope and scale of the use of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory transcends a wide range of areas. However, despite of its popularity, the validity and utility of this theory have raised many controversies over the years. On one hand, Maslow's theory is very intuitive (Heylighen, 1992), easy to understand and apply. Being one of the most enduring theories of behavioral science, Maslow's “Hierarchy of Needs” holds high face validity. On the other hand, many questioned the validity and applicability of the theory (Wahba & Bridwell, 1976. McCarth & Perreault, 1984). Some claimed that Maslow's theory has been used without adequate scientific evidence (Soper, Milford & Rosenthal, 1995). There are studies that show support or partial support of the theory (Lawler & Porter, 1967. Ghiselli & Johnson, 1970. Manning & Curtis, 1988. Benson & Dundis, 2003. Barling 1976. Hall & Nougaim, 1968. Porat, 1977. Reiss & Havercamp 2005), while some found no evidence to support the theory (Hall & Nougaim, 1968. Lawler & Suttle, 1972).

The purpose of our paper is to revisit Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, review its critiques and evaluate its applications. Our paper is to examine whether Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is a valid theory of...

References: Al-Meer, A.R. 1996. A comparison of the Need Importance Structure Between Saudis and Westerners. Journal of Management Development, Vol. 15, 5:56-64
Bardwell, P.L
Barling, J.I. 1976. An Empirical Test of the Career Stages Alternative to Maslow 's Need Hierarchy Concept in One Industrial Setting. South African Journal of Psychology. 6.
Benson, S.G. & Dundis, S. P. 2003. Understanding and Motivating Health Care Employees: Integrating Maslow 's Hierarchy of Needs, Training and Technology. Journal of nursing management, 11:315-320.
Black, F & William, R. 1971, Psychology at Work. Great Britain: Penguin books.
Blunt P & Jones M. 1986. Managerial Motivation in Kenya and Malawi: a Cross - cultural Comparison. The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 42, 1:165-175.
Chiaramonte, P. and Mills, A. J. 1993. Counseling Self Reflection as an Instrument in Organizational Learning. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, Vol. 21, 2:145-155.
Chung, Kae H., Northern Illinois University, 1969. A Markov Chain Model of Human Needs: An Extension of Maslow’s Need Theory. The Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 12, No. 2. (Jun., 1969), p. 223-234
Cullen, D
Dye, Mills and Weatherbee (2005). Maslow: Man Interrupted: Reading Management Theory in Context. Management Decision, Vol. 43. 10:375-95.
Eckerman, A. C. 1968. A New Look at Need Theory – An Extension of Maslow 's Hierarchy. Training and Development Journal.
Gambrel, Patrick A & Cianci, R. 2003. Maslow 's Hierarchy of Needs: Does it Apply in Collectivist Culture. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 8, 2:143-162.
Ghiselli, Edwin E. & Johnson, Douglas A. 1970. Need Satisfaction, Managerial Success, and Organizational Structure. Personnel Psychology, 23:569-576.
Gibson, Frank K. & Teasley, Clyde E., University of Georgia. The Humanistic Model of Organizational Motivation: A Review of Research Support. Public Administration Review, Vol.33, No. 1. (Jan. – Feb., 1973), p. 89-96.
Gibson, J. L. , Ivancevich, J.M., & Donnelly Jr., J. H. 1994, Organizations. Boston, MA: Irwin.
Hall, M.H. 1968. A Conversation With Abraham Maslow. Psychology Today, 37.
Hall, D.T. & Nougaim, K. E. 1968, An Examination of Maslow 's Need Hierarchy in an Organizational Setting. Organizational Behavior (2nd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Herzberg, F. 1966, Work and the Nature of Man. Cleveland, OH: World.
Hergenhahn, B.R. 2005, An Introduction to the History of Psychology (5th ed.), Belmont CA: Wadsworth.
Heylighen, F. 1992. A Cognitive-Systematic Reconstruction of Maslow 's Theory of Self- Actualization. Behavioral Science, Vol. 37, 1: 39-59.
Hjelle, L.A. & Zeigler, D.J., 1976, Personality Theory: Basic Assumption , Research and Applications, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kets de Vires. 1978. The Midcareer Conundrum. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 7 2:45-62.
Kickul, J., Lester, S.W. and Belgio, E. 2004, Attitudinal and Behavioral Outcomes of Psychological Contract Breach: A Cross Cultural Comparison of the United States and Hong Kong Chinese. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 4, 2:229.
Kotler, P , Lilien, G.L. & Moorthy, K.S. 1991, Marketing Management Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control (7th ed.). Eaglewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kuo, Y. F. and Chen, L.S. 2004. Individual Demographic Differences and Job satisfaction Among Information Technology Personnel: An Empirical Study in Taiwan. International Journal of Management, Vol. 21. 2:221.
Laas, I. 2006. Self-actualization and Society: A New Application For An Old Theory. Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
Larry Hjelle & Daniel Ziegler, 1976, Personality Theories (3rd ed.). New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Lawler, E.E & Porter, L. W. 1967. The Effect of Performance On Job Satisfaction. Industrial Relations, 7,1:20-28.
Lawler, E.E. & Suttle, J.L. 1972. A Causal Correlation Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 7:265-287.
Lawler, E.E. 1973, Motivation in work organizations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Lowry, R. J. 1979, The Journals of A.H. Maslow, Vol. I and II, Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.
Lynda Juall Carpenito-Moyet. 2003. Nursing Forum, Vol. 38, 2.
Lyon, H.L., Ivancevich, J.M. and Donnelly, J.H. 1970. A Motivational Profile of Management Scientists. Operations Research, Vol. 19, 6.
MaCarth, J.E & Perreault, D.W. 1984, Basic Marketing. Homewood, IL.
Manning, N. & Curtis, F. 1988, Human Behavior: Why People Do What They Do. Cincinnati: Vista Systems publishing.
Maslow, A.H. 1943. A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological review, 50:370 – 396.
Maslow, A.H. 1954, Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.
Maslow, A.H. 1965, Euphachian Management. Homewood, IL: Irwin-Dorsey.
Maslow, A.H. 1968, Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Maslow, A.H. 1970, Motivation and Personality (2nd ed). New York: Harper and Row.
Maslow, A.H. 1971, The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. New York: Viking.
McGregor, D. 1960, The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Meleis, A.I. 1991, Theoretical Nursing: Development and Progress, 2nd edition. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co.
Nevis, E.G. 1983. Cultural Assumptions and Productivity: The United States and China. Sloan Management Review, Vol 24, 3:17-29.
Porat, Ben. 1977. Guttman Scale Test for Maslow Need Hierarchy. The Journal of Psychology, 1977, 97, 85-92.
Reiss, Steven and Havercamp, Susan M. 2005. Motivation in Developmental Context: A New Method for Studying Self-Actualization. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 45, 1:41-53.
Roberts, T.B. 1982. Comment on Mathes 's article. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol 22, 4:97-98.
Rowan, John. 1999. Ascent and Descent in Maslow’s Theory. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 39, 3:125-133.
Sanford, A.C. 1970. A cross cultural study of industrial motivation. Southern quarterly, 8:146-161.
Seeley, E. 1992. Human needs and consumer economics: the implications of Maslow 's theory of motivation for consumer expenditure patterns. Journal of Socio-Economics, Vol. 21, 4.
Shermer, M. 2004, The science of good and evil. New York: Times Books.
Shoura, M.M. & Singh, A. 1998. Motivation parameters for engineering managers using Maslow 's theory. Journal of management in engineering, Vol. 15, 5.
Sirgy, M. J. 1986. A quality-of-life theory derived from Maslow 's developmental perspective: 'quality ' is related to progressive satisfaction of a hierarchy of needs, lower order and higher. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 45, 3.
Soper, B , Milford, G.& Rosenthal, G . 1995. Belief when evidence does not support theory. Psychology and marketing.
Stanton W. J. & Futrell, C. 1987, Fundamentals of marketing. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Wahba, M.A., & , Bridwell, L.G. 1976, Maslow reconsidered: a review of research on the need hierarchy theory. Organizational behavior and human performance, 15:212-241.
Wilber, K. 1995. Sex, ecology, spirituality. Boston: Shambhala.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Maslow's Hierachy of Needs Essay
  • Application of Maslow's Theory of Needs to Mobilize a Community Essay
  • Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay
  • Introduction to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Essay
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Essay
  • Maslow's Hierachy and Google Essay
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free