Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Normally a certain amount of glucose circulates in the blood. The major sources of this glucose are absorption of ingested food in the gastrointestinal tract and formation of glucose by the liver from food substances.
Insulin a hormone produced by the pancreas, controls he level of glucose in the blood by regulating the production and storage of glucose. In the diabetic state, the cells may stop responding to insulin or pancreas may stop producing insulin entirely. This leads to hyperglycemia, which may result in acute metabolic complications such as diabeticketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). Long term effects of hyperglycemia contribute to macro vascular complications (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease), chronic micro vascular complications (kidney and eye disease), and neuropathic complications (diseases of the nerves).
One out of every five adult Filipinos are diabetic, according to the latest national survey conducted on the prevalence of diabetes in the country. The survey, conducted in 2007 by the Philippine Cardiovascular Outcome Study on Diabetes Mellitus (PhilCOS-DM), further shows that as many as three out of five adults are already diabetic or on the verge of developing diabetes unless they change their lifestyle. Health authorities and the medical community were alarmed by the "rapid development of diabetes" especially among children, in the last 10 years. A similar survey among children however has yet to be made.
* My general objective is that within two weeks of our duty in Los Banos Hospital Doctors, may be able to choose a case study that will help me gain more knowledge and will contribute to the development of our KSA (knowledge, Skills and Attitude) in fulfilling my tasks as nursing students. Specific Objectives:
* To guide me towards the completion of this case study, our group formulates the following specific objectives: a. To fully understand the disease process of diabetes mellitus. b. To identify the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus. c. To formulate SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time-bounded) objectives that will serves as guide for the accomplishment of this study. d. To understand and discuss the anatomy and physiology of the body systems involved in the disease. e. To know the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus.
f. To have a cephalocaudal assessment of the patient to serve as baseline data in determining the changes in the patient. g. To study and relate the significance of the laboratory/diagnostic examination that the patient has undergone. h. To make a drug study of the medications prescribed to our patient. i. To formulate effective Nursing Care Plan.
j. To make a discharge planning for our patient.
A female 58 years old was immediately brought to the hospital by her maid with a chief complaint of chest pain.Vital sign taken BP- 130/80 RR- 26 PR- 89 Temp – 37.2 She was driving when she felt chest pain and they went to hospital. That day prior to admission she was recive medication such as comvibent for the relieving of asthma, infused D5LRS to support electrolytes, checked blood pressure for Hypertension and FBS done to determine the level of blood glucose. Medication given such as Hyzaar, Lipitor, and Metformin to reduce glucose in blood sugar to prevent hyperglycemia Three days prior to admission is allowed to discharge that day with a final diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
A. Demographic Profile
58 years old
Address: Los Banos, Laguna
Civil Status: Married
Occupation: Barangay Councilor...
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