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By Apple Grace-M Dec 06, 2013 2460 Words

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory of Human Samantha Van Vleet Start Here MORE:
Human Development
Being Laid Off
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The ethological theory focuses on the impact of biology on human behavior, while the ecological theory focuses on the impact that environment plays on the growth and development of an individual. A researcher by the name of Urie Bronfenbrenner theorized that there were five environmental factors that impacted an individual's growth and development; the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macrosystem and the chronosystem. The Microsystem 

The microsystem refers to the environment in which an individual lives. This system includes family members, peers, religious communities, neighborhoods and others whom the individual has regular interaction and direct contact with. The microsystem is the system in which an individual encounters the most social interactions. The individual is not simply observing or having things happen to them, but helping to create and construct the experiences they have. The Mesosystem 

The mesosystem is described as the interactions between the microsystems. The mesosystem could include experiences at home related to experiences at school, or experiences at school related to experiences at church. Much like the microsystem, the individual is not simply observing the things happening to them, but are playing an active role in helping create the experiences they have. The Exosystem 

The exosystem is a system in which the individual plays no role in the construction of experiences, but these experiences have a direct impact on the microsystems the individual is part of. An example of an exosystem could include a husband being laid off and this lack of employment having a direct impact on the family's financial state that could affect their day-to-day lifestyle and the stress level in the home. The Macrosystem 

The macrosystem is influenced greatly by the culture and society in which a person lives. The belief systems and ideology of the individual's culture influence the person directly, however, the individual does not necessarily have as much freedom in determining his or her surroundings. Some examples of these influences could include political or religious norms of the culture. The Chronosystem 

The chronosystem reflects the culmulative experiences a person has over the course of their lifetime. These experiences include environmental events, as well as major transitions in life. Some notable transitions include divorce, marriage or the birth of a baby. These transitions are major experiences in an individual's lifetime. References 

From systems thinking to socioecological models[edit]
A system can be defined as a comparatively bounded structure consisting of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements that form a whole.[1] Systems thinking argues that the only way to fully understand something or an occurrence is to understand the parts in relation to the whole. Thus, systems thinking, which is the process of understanding how things influence one another within a whole, is central to ecological models. Generally, a system is a community situated within an environment. Examples of systems are health systems, education systems, food systems, and economic systems. Drawing from natural ecosystems which are defined as the network of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, social ecology is a framework or set of theoretical principles for understanding the dynamic interrelations among various personal and environmental factors.[2] Social ecology pays explicit attention to the social, institutional, and cultural contexts of people-environment relations. This perspective emphasizes the multiple dimensions (example: physical environment, social and cultural environment, personal attributes), multiple levels (example: individuals, groups, organizations), and complexity of human situations (example: cumulative impact of events over time).[3] Social ecology also incorporates concepts such as interdependence and homeostasis from systems theory to characterize reciprocal and dynamic person-environment transactions.[4],[5] Individuals are key agents in ecological systems. From an ecological perspective, the individual is both a postulate (a basic entity whose existence is taken for granted) and a unit of measurement. As a postulate, an individual has several characteristics. First he requires access to an environment, upon which he/she is dependent for knowledge. Second, he is interdependent with other humans; that is, is always part of a population and cannot exist otherwise. Third, he is time bound, or has a finite life cycle. Fourth, he has an innate tendency to preserve and expand life. Fifth, he has capacity for behavioral variability.[6] Social ecological models are thus applicable to the processes and conditions that govern the lifelong course of human development in the actual environment in which human beings live.[7] Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Framework for Human Development is considered to be the most recognized and utilized social ecological model (as applied to human development). Ecological systems theory considers a child’s development within the context of the systems of relationship that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework for human development[edit]

Illustration of Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework for human development Main article: Ecological systems theory
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework for human development was first introduced in the 1970s as a conceptual model and became a theoretical model in the 1980s. Two distinct phases of the theory can be identified. Bronfenbrenner[8] stated that “it is useful to distinguish two periods: the first ending with the publication of the Ecology of Human Development (1979), and the second characterized by a series of papers that called the original model into question.” Bronfenbrenner's initial theory illustrated the importance of place to aspects of the context, and in the revision, he engaged in self-criticism for discounting the role a person plays in his or her own development while focusing too much on the context.[9] Although revised, altered and extended, the heart of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory remains the ecological-stressing person-context interrelatedness. Ecological systems theory[edit]

In his original theory, Bronfenbrenner postulated that in order to understand human development, the entire ecological system in which growth occurs needs to be taken into account. This system is composed of five socially organized subsystems that support and guide human development. Each system depends on the contextual nature of the person’s life and offers an evergrowing diversity of options and sources of growth. Furthermore, within and between each system are bi-directional influences. These bi-directional influences imply that relationships have impact in two directions, both away from the individual and towards the individual. Because we potentially have access to these subsystems we are able to have more social knowledge, an increased set of possibilities for learning problem solving, and access to new dimensions of self-exploration. Microsystem[edit]

The microsystem is the layer closest to the child and contains the structures with which the child has direct contact. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with his or her immediate surroundings such as family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments.[10] At the microsystem level, bi-directional influences are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child. However, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures. This core environment stands as the child’s venue for initially learning about the world. As the child’s most intimate learning setting, it offers him or her a reference point for the world. The microsystem may provide the nurturing centerpiece for the child or become a haunting set of memories.[11] The real power in this initial set of interrelations with family for the child is what they experience in terms of developing trust and mutuality with their significant people.[12] The family is the child’s early microsystem for learning how to live. The caring relations between child and parents (or other caregivers) can help to influence a healthy personality.[13] For example, the attachment behaviors of parents offer children their first trust-building experience.[14] Mesosystem[edit]

The mesosystem moves us beyond the dyad or two-party relation.[15] Mesosystems connect two or more systems in which child, parent and family live.[16] Mesosystems provide the connection between the structures of the child’s microsystem.[17] For example, the connection between the child’s teacher and his parents, between his church and his neighborhood, each represent mesosystems.:) Exosystem[edit]

The exosystem defines the larger social system in which the child does not directly function. The structures in this layer impact the child’s development by interacting with some structure in his/her microsystem.[18] Parent workplace schedules or community-based family resources are examples. The child may not be directly involved at this level, but he does feel the positive or negative force involved with the interaction with his own system. The main exosystems that indirectly influence youth through their family include: school and peers, parents' workplace, family social networks and neighborhood community contexts, local politics and industry.[19] Exosystems can be empowering (example: a high quality child-care program that benefits the entire family) or they can be degrading (example: excessive stress at work impacts the entire family). Furthermore, absence from a system makes it no less powerful in a life. For example, many children realize the stress of their parent’s workplaces without ever physically being in these places.[20] Macrosystem[edit]

The macrosystem is composed of cultural values, customs, and laws.[21] It refers to the overall patterns of ideology and organization that characterize a given society or social group. Macrosystems can be used to describe the cultural or social context of various societal groups such as social classes, ethnic groups, or religious affiliates.[22] This layer is the outermost layer in the child’s environment. The effects of larger principles defined by the macrosystem have a cascading influence throughout the interactions of all other layers. The macrosystem influences what, how, when and where we carry out our relations.[23] For example, a program like Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) may positively impact a young mother through health care, vitamins, and other educational resources. It may empower her life so that she, in turn, is more affective and caring with her newborn.[24] In this example, without an umbrella of beliefs, services, and support for families, children and their parents are open to great harm and deterioration.[25] In a sense, the macrosytem that surrounds us helps us to hold together the many threads of our lives. Chronosystem[edit]

The chronosystem encompasses the dimension of time as it relates to a child’s environment.[26] Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent’s death, or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the aging of a child. Family dynamics need to be framed in the historical context as they occur within each system.[27] Specifically, the powerful influence that historical influences in the macrosystem have on how families can respond to different stressors. Bronfenbrenner[28] suggests that, in many cases, families respond to different stressors within the societal parameters existent in their lives. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

What is Metacognition?
Metacognition is an individual’s knowledge of their own cognitive processes and their ability to control these processes by organizing, monitoring and modifying them as a function of learning. It refers to the ability to reflect upon the task demand and independently select and employ the appropriate reading, writing, math or learning strategy. Why is Metacognition Important?

Metacognition is an important aspect of student learning. It involves self regulation, reflection upon an individual’s performance strengths, weaknesses, learning and study strategies. Metacognition is the foundation upon which students become independent readers and writers. It also underlies student’s abilities to generalize math problem solving strategies. Antidote for “Learned Helplessness”

Our classrooms and special education programs are full of students who have not developed metacognitive strategies. They are dependent learners who are not aware of what they need. They rely upon teachers and tutors for constant support. Integrating and infusing LINKS Metacognitive Reading, Writing and Math Strategies into content instruction helps students: Learn material more efficiently

Retain information longer
Generalize skills
Bringing Metacognition into the Classroom
Despite efficacy studies, Metacognitive strategy instruction is not well practiced in today’s classrooms due to inadequate resources and lack of professional development. EPSI provides both tools and professional development to bring metacognition to the cl ……………

Microgenetic analysis is a product of Jean Piaget's research in genetic epistemology. The renowned French psychologist sought through genetic epistemology to find out how knowledge grows. His conclusion was that knowledge grows progressively from logically embedded structures that supersede each other by the use of logical means that change throughout a person's life. In this context, "genetic" means growth over a life span and has no specific connection to the study of genetics. Method

Microgenetic analysis studies the process of learning and achievement of competency by observing the performance of people through time. This method seeks to notice subtle changes in students that would go unnoticed by analysis methods with less frequent assessment intervals. Teachers, managers and researchers who use microgenetic analysis seek to discover how people learn and the efficiency of the teaching methods used. Sponsored Links

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The study of how knowledge grows through microgenetic analysis is based on three main properties. First, observations must be made as often as possible during the stages at which learning occurs. Second, the number of observations during these stages must be directly proportional to the rate at which change occurs. Third, the observations must be done on a trial-by-trial basis with the objective of understanding the learning process. Microgenetic analysis can span weeks or even months and be applied to all kinds of learning settings and problems. Microgenetic Analysis and Business

Although microgenetic analysis was first developed by Piaget as part of his research into how children learn, its use is not restricted to the classroom or to children. Microgenetic analysis is interested in how change occurs, what conditions promote the emergence of change and how new behavioral patterns are built after change. These issues interest business managers, who are always trying to stay one step ahead of ever-changing markets. Microgenetic analysis also has a place in the training stages of new workers and in in-house seminars, because it provides valuable feedback to businesses that wish to improve the quality and efficiency of their education methods.

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Microgenetic Analysis
An increasingly refined and popular method of investigating cognitive development is microgenetic analysis.1 In this kind of fine-grained analysis, researchers closely observe people at densely spaced time intervals to view minute processes that could be obscured during less-frequent and less-detailed assessments. The properties of microgenetic analysis include (1) observations that span as much as possible of the period during which rapid change in competence occurs; (2) a density of observations within this period that is high relative to the rate of change in the phenomenon; and (3) observations that are examined on an intensive, trial-by-trial basis, with the goal of understanding the process of change in detail. Microgenetic observations may span weeks or months and hundreds of problems. The process

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