Apa Formatting for New Kids on the Block Hanging Tough

Topics: American Psychological Association, Validity, Psychometrics Pages: 5 (1309 words) Published: June 16, 2013
APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style

Bill Murray


Monday January 10, 1986
Professor X


The abstract should be a single paragraph in block format
(without paragraph indentation) and should not exceed 120 words. See section 1.07 of the APA manual (American Psychological
Association [APA], 2001) for additional information. The abstract is simply a summary of the paper. One trick in writing the
abstract is to write one summary sentence for each major part of the paper. Then you will have a nice, four-sentence abstract. Before getting started you will notice some things about
this paper. First, everything is double-spaced. Second, margins are 1-inch wide on all sides. Third, there are several headings used throughout to separate different parts of the paper. Fourth, and this is perhaps a surprise, there is exactly one space after each punctuation mark, including periods. Try to pay attention to all of these details as you look through this paper.

Now that those details are out of the way, you should know
that this first part of the paper is called the “Introduction” section, yet it does not have a heading that actually says
“Introduction.” Instead, the title of the paper is typed at the top of the first page (be sure to center the title). In this section you would often start with a topic paragraph that
introduces the problem under study. Section 1.08 of the APA
manual (APA, 2001) will help give you some ideas.
The bulk of the Introduction section is background
literature on the topic being researched. Here a literature
review is often very helpful to provide a theoretical or
empirical basis for the research. Remember to cite often.
Articles and books are cited the same way in the text, yet they appear different on the References page. For example, an article by Cronbach and Meehl (1955) and a book by Bandura (1986) are written with the authors’ names and the year of the publication in parentheses. However, if you look on the References page they look a little different. Remember that APA style does not use footnotes or anything like that for citations.

Two other things about citations are important. When a
citation is written inside parentheses (e.g., Cronbach & Meehl, 1959), an ampersand is used between authors’ names instead of the word “and.” Second, when citing an author’s work using quotations, be sure to include a page number. For example, Rogers (1961) once wrote that two important elements of a helping

relationship are “genuineness and transparency” (p. 37). Notice that the page number is included here. Unless a direct quote is taken from a source, the page number is not included.
The last section of the Introduction states the purpose of
the research. The purpose can usually be summarized in a few sentences. Hypotheses are also included here at the end of this section. State your hypotheses as predictions (e.g., “I predicted that...”), and try to avoid using passive tense (e.g., “It was predicted that...”). You will notice that hypotheses are written in past tense because you are describing a study you have

The Method section is the second of four main parts of an
empirical paper (see Section 1.09 of the APA [1994] manual). (Be aware that some papers are reviews of the literature and
therefore would not have a separate Method section.) There are typically three major subsections in the Method although there can be more. These subsections are separated by subheadings. Subheadings are described in sections 3.31 of the APA manual (APA, 2001).

APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style

In the event that the purpose of your paper is to develop a
new measure, you may wish to describe reliability and validity in the Results section (see below). However, you would only do this for a scale-development project.
This section describes in great detail the data-collection
procedures. Describe how...

References: American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of
the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A
social cognitive theory
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in
psychological tests
Crowne, C. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social
desirability independent of psychopathology
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton
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