Apa Format

Powerful Essays
Topics: Citation
APA Format

Rules for Citation

General rules for citation

• When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author 's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, E.g., (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

• Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.

• If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source.

• When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.

• Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock 's Vertigo."

• Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.

• Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles and articles from edited collections.

Short Quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author 's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199). Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author 's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style,” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but



References: warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects which cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries. So, do not refer to them. 6. Reference List: Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication No personal communication is included in the bibliography; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication and the date of the communication in your main text only. (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001). A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

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