Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 BCE
Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
What is the evidence that explains the earliest history of humans and the planet? What are the theories that interpret this evidence?
Where did humans first appear on Earth, and what were their society, technology, and culture? Describe earliest humans’ technology & tools
What were the earliest humans’ religious beliefs and practices? How did the earliest humans’ society help them procure enough supplies to survive?
Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
What were the long-term demographic, social, political, and economic effects of the Neolithic Revolution? The societies that were founded in the Neolithic Revolution were the foundation of the River Valley civilizations. Look at the third question for more info.
How did pastoral societies resemble or differ from early agricultural societies? Where did pastoralism persist even after the Neolithic Revolution? Differences:
Pastoral societies were smaller and more mobile than early agricultural societies Pastoralism focused more on hunting and gathering, while early agricultural societies depended more on the same soil… Pastoral societies adapted far better to their environment as they could move Similarities:
Both developed animal husbandry
Pastoralism persisted in areas that could not sustain long-term agricultural pursuits, such as areas with unfavorable climates and unreliable sources of pastures, food sources, and water.
How did the Neolithic Revolution affect human societies economically & socially? The Neolithic Revolution began the era of permanent societies. · Due to the closed nature of society, the demographic of farmers was less diverse than of the demographic of herders as they mostly mated within their population · Gender roles became more prevalent
· The reliance on the limited amount of land they had gave way to political organization · Less variety in terms of food which affected the overall health of the farming society’s citizens · Political organization caused social organization which was divided by amount of property and power.
Why did the Neolithic Revolution start (at all)?
There are many theories regarding the origin of Neolithic societies. need for a long-term reliable source of food to nourish a rapidly growing society rose because people experimented with plants out of their own free time the need for political and social organization
Where did the Neolithic Revolution first transform human populations? (Plural answer) · Asia – east of the Zagros Mountains, Middle East regions · Americas – high Andes to Amazon River Basin
· Africa - Egypt, the Nile River Valley
· Pacific Islands – New Guinea
· Europe - Northern Europe
What various crops & animals were developed or domesticated during the Neolithic Revolution? The trinity: maize, beans, and squash
Rye, wheat, barley
Various marine animals, snails
Sheep, goats, yaks, llamas
What labor adjustments did humans make in order to facilitate the Neolithic Revolution? Increased reliance on female labor
Had to produce more crops to make up for the energy used for farming
What were the environmental effects of the Neolithic Revolution? Soil was overused.
Deforestation occurred to make more land available for agriculture Overgrazing
Animals became more suited to human needs due to animal husbandry
What effects did pastoralism & agriculture have on the food supply? At first the food supply was unreliable due to a lot of energy devoted to crop production The food supply slowly became more reliable and created surplus In certain regions of the world, food options were limited
What were the social...
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