Mesopotamia was the first great civilization and was built along the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers and is now located in present day Iraq. This is the area that is called the Fertile Crescent because its geography and layout caused farming and urban areas. The people in this region were either considered Sumerians or Semitics which led to religion in which the people worshipped gods of nature and also imagined gods as anthropomorphic. The social structure of Mesopotamia was organized in social divisions which gave certain economic and political advantages to some and condemned others. Social structure was very much controlled by The Law Code of Hammurabi which gave the society three classes; the free landowning class, the class of dependant farmers, and the class of slaves. The economy of Mesopotamia was based on slaves and trade. The trading was kept track with a system of tokens which gave ownership of different items and also property. Much of the trade there was done by boat and includes the trading of bronze, clay, and cattle. This is very much how Mesopotamia lasted so long and is known as the first great civilization.
Egypt was the second and one of the greatest civilizations. It was centrally located in Northeast Africa and is still known by the same name. The geographical feature that most affected Egypt was the Nile River but was also affected by the huge amount of land available. The land of Egypt was separated between north and south