Ap World History Chapter 21 Summary

Topics: Indian Ocean, 2nd millennium, Pacific Ocean Pages: 10 (2488 words) Published: August 26, 2013
Chapter 21
A. The Toltec and the Mexica
1. Toltecs emerge in the ninth and tenth centuries after the collapse of Teotihuacan a. Established large state, powerful army mid-tenth to the mid-twelfth century b. Tula was the Toltec capital city and center of trade c. Maintained close relations with societies of the Gulf coast and the Maya 2. Toltec decline after twelfth century

d. Civil strife at Tula, beginning in 1125
e. Nomadic invaders after 1175
3. Arrival of the Mexica (or Aztecs) in central Mexico mid-thirteenth century f. Warriors and raiders
g. Built capital city, Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City), about 1345 h. Developed productive chinampas style of agriculture 4. Fifteenth century, Aztecs launched military campaigns against neighboring societies i. Conquered and colonized Oaxaco in southwestern Mexico j. Made alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan

k. Built an empire of twelve million people, most of Mesoamerica 5. Controlled subject peoples with oppressive tribute obligations l. Empire had no bureaucracy or administration; local administrators enforced tributes m. Allies did not have standing army

n. Tribute of 489 subject territories flowed into Tenochtitlan B. Mexica society
6. Most information comes from Spanish sources, recorded after the conquest 7. Mexica warriors were the elite at the top of a rigid social hierarchy o. Mostly from the Mexica aristocracy

p. Enjoyed great wealth, honor, and privileges
8. Mexica women had no public role, but were honored as mothers of warriors q. Mexica women active in commerce and crafts
r. Primary purpose to bear children: women who died in childbirth celebrated 9. Priests also among the Mexica elite
s. Read omens, presided over rituals, monitored ritual calendar t. Advisers to Mexica rulers, occasionally became supreme rulers 10. Most of the Mexica were either cultivators or slaves u. Cultivators worked on chinampas (small plots of reclaimed land) or on aristocrats' land v. Paid tribute and provided labor service for public works w. Large number of slaves who worked as domestic servants 11. Artisans and merchants enjoyed prestige

x. Artisans valued for skill work, especially luxury items y. Trade could be profitable, but also risky
C. Mexica religion
12. Mexica deities adopted from prior Mesoamerican cultures z. Tezcatlipoca
{. Quetzalcóatl
13. Ritual bloodletting common to all Mesoamericans |. Human sacrifice to Huitzilopochtli
}. Large temple at the center of Tenochtitlan, thousands of skulls D. Peoples and societies of the north
14. Pueblo and Navajo: large settled societies in American southwest ~. Agriculture and irrigation
. By about 700 C.E., began to build stone and adobe buildings 15. Iroquois peoples: an agricultural society in the eastern woodlands . Five Iroquois nations emerged from Owasco society, 1400 C.E. . Male/female roles

16. Mound-building peoples in eastern North America . Built enormous earthen mounds for ceremonies and burials . Largest mound at Cahokia, Illinois
. Fifteen thousand to thirty-eight thousand people lived in Cahokia society during the twelfth century . No written records: burial sites reveal existence of social classes and trade I. States and empires in Andean South America

E. The coming of the Incas
17. Kingdom of Chucuito dominated Andean South America...
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