Chapter 2: Early Societies in Southwest Asia & and the Indo-European Migrations
I. The quest for order A. Mesopotamia: "the land between the rivers" 1. Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates 2. Little rain, so area needs irrigation (small scale by 6000 B.C.E.) 3. Food supplies increase a. Human population increases b. Migrants to the area increase--especially Semites c. Sumer (in south) becomes population center 4. First cities emerge, 4000 B.C.E. d. Between 3200 and 2350 B.C.E., they evolve into city-states (control of surrounding region) e. Governments sponsor building projects and irrigation f. Attacks by others led to wall building and military development g. Kingships evolve with cooperation of noble families B. The course of empire 5. Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 B.C.E.) h. Coup against king of Kish i. Seizes trade routes and natural resources j. Gradually empire weakens and collapses about 2000 B.C.E. 6. Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.E.) k. Centralizes the bureaucracy and regulates taxation l. Capital is Babylon m. Law Code: law of retribution and importance of social status n. Hittite assault and empire crumbles in 1595 B.C.E. C. The later Mesopotamian empires 7. Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about 1300-612 B.C.E. o. Cities: Assur and Ninevah p. Powerful army: professional officers (merit), chariots, archers, iron weapons q. Unpopular rule leads to rebellions; ends 612 B.C.E. 8. New Babylonian empire, 600-550 B.C.E. r. Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B.C.E.) s. Hanging gardens of palace shows wealth and luxury II. The formation of a complex society and sophisticated cultural traditions D. Economic specialization and trade 9. Bronze (made from copper and tin);...
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