DBQ: Rise and Fall of Ottoman Turkey, Safavid Iran, Mughal India
What factors contemporaneous observers attributed the rise and fall of the Muslim empires which factors made them successful, which factors weakened empires? Discuss overall strengths and weaknesses additional documents to help access rise and fall of Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals? Documents:
Document 1: SAFAVID “great liking for warfare and weapons of war…fine soldier and very skilled, and his men so dexterous—use of muskets””realm extended and soldiers receive pay all year” Paul Simon, missionary to Safavid Court of Shah Abbas The Great in the city of Isfaha, 1605—visitor to Safavid court, therefore perhaps biased in treatment of soldiers and mencourt has only the best of the best. Plus biased towards Europe, therefore men are “little behind our men in Europe.” success of the empire was its treatment of the recruited slave youth into the army and bureaucracybackbone of army and loyal to Abbas I. Document 2: MUGHAL Revenues collected “3,960.3 million dams” while expenditures were “3784.2 million dams”, a good “187.4” on the imperial household itself, another 359 for the central military establishment and an astounding 3237.8 on the imperial nobility. most of the population in India lived in poverty, the splendor of the regime mostly the Mughal nobility. Bureaucracy and army grown bloated and corrupt, peasants and urban workers have lower living standards warfare (Aurangzeb) and elaborate architecture (shah Jahan) cost empire against Invaders. Document 3: OTTOMAN “considers each case on its own merits”—“no distinction is attached to birth among the Turks””honors, high posts and judgeships are the rewards of great ability and good service”: meritocracy in Suleiman the Magnificent’s court: Ottoman Empire has freedom of religion, prevents rebellions from conquered territories. Many advisors to the Sultan, religious scholars, legal experts, dhimmis (people of the book)underneath ruling...
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