Methods, Approaches and History
A. What is Psychology-
1. Scientific study- the understanding of behavioral and mental processes 2. Behavior- Anything an organism does, any action we can observe and record. i.e. yelling, smiling, blinking, sweating, and talking. 3. Mental Processes- the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior-sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. B. The scientific Method
1. Testable Hypothesis- a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. 2. Operational Definition- a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. 2.1 Single-blind- a research procedure where they don’t tell the participants that they are being given a test or treatment. It is used to prevent bias results. 2.2 Double- blind- both patient and staff are not aware of the condition of the patient. 3. Collect data- researchers re-create a study with different participants and materials and try to get similar results. 3.1 Direct the subjects- viewing the subject in a laboratory setting. 3.2 Statistical analysis- collection of methods used to process large amounts of amounts of data and report overall trends. 4. Report the conclusions- The researcher develops explanations for the findings. These explanations involve the extent to which the findings confirm the theories and hypotheses the study was addressing. 4.1 Publish results- publishes results of the study so that it can be replicated. 4.2 Further replication- repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. C. Methods of Psychological research
1. Naturalistic Observation- observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. 2. Case study- an observation technique n which one person is studied in depth in the hope or revealing universal...
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