2/8. Tools for studying consciousness are designed to be able to look into the brain and see what regions and areas are active during different mental tasks. Like in Chapter three there was tools like an MRI or PET. For studying consciousness there is Mental Rotation and
Zooming in with the mind. These resources aren't able to show the experience of consciousness. They can show distinct parts of the brain that are used during certain activities. Mental Rotation specifically is the way our minds automatically rotate images in order to compare them. In this process, it does not take a long time to compare two images that have been rotated at a slight angle, but as the angle increases, the ability to compare them takes longer. Experiments involving mental rotation that contributed to the knowledge consciousness that lead us to this conclusion, was a study done by Roger Shephard and
Jacqueline Metzer. In this project they used images and asked volunteers to try and figure out if the two images in each group were the same, but in different positions. Zooming in with the mind is the idea that we can use our consciousness to "zoom in" on the big picture, and then therefore be able to look at and recall specific details of that big picture. It was seen in studies that with a more specific question on detail the longer a subject would need to reply. Studies that showed this was one like how Stephen Kosslyn asked random people specific questions about an imagined object. These two things are used as examples of tools for studying consciousness because they "show the how of consciousness", meaning it can determine how the brain processes under different degrees of mental concentration.
3/4. The biggest issue for psychologists when studying consciousness is that it is a very abstract and deceitful topic. Meaning that