English Language Composition
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1. Abstract Language:
Language describing ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places. 2. Ad Hominem Argument
: A fallacy of logic in which a person's character or motive is attacked instead of that person's argument. The purpose is to distract the audience from the issue by emphasizing personal defects of an opponent. Why distract the audience from the issue? Usually because the person does not have a strong case. Consider former President Bill Clinton. Today, at the mention of his name, his foes recall his moral lapses--but those lapses have nothing to do with his policies and decisions while in office.
A work that functions on a symbolic level
The repetition of initial consonant sounds, such as "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers." 5. Allusion
: A brief, indirect reference to a person, place, even, or passage in a work of literature or the Bible assumed to be sufficiently well known to be recognized by the reader. For example: This band could be the next Beatles. (Those who know The Beatles, considered by most to be the greatest band in rock history, might be persuaded to listen to this band.) 6. Ambiguity:
an event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way. 7. Analogy
: A comparison between two things in which the more complex is explained in terms of the more simple. For example (and from the film
): Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you're going to get. 8. Anaphora:
repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent. Think Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech. 9. Anecdote
: A short, entertaining story used for effect. Most such stories contain a moral or a message supporting the speaker or writer's persuasive intent.
explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data. 11. Antecedent:
the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.
the presentation of two contrasting images written with parallel structure. The ideas are balanced by phrase, clause, or paragraphs. "To be or not to be..." "It was the best of times;it was the worst of times..." "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country . . ."
13. Appeal to Authority
: Using a perceived figure of authority or interest for the purpose of strengthening an argument. For example: Consider all the television ads that have a person dressed up in a doctor's outfit endorsing a product. Also, note how popular celebrities are used to pitch products.
14. Appeal to Pity
: a fallacy in which someone tries to win support for an argument or idea by exploiting her or his opponent's feelings of pity or guilt. The appeal to pity is a specific kind of appeal to emotion. 15. Argument:
A single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer. 16. Argumentation:
The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. 17. Argumentum Ad Baculinum:
Fallacy that occurs when threat of force is made, either implicitly or explicitly. Example: "I'm willing to discuss this in even more depth, but if you don't come around soon, there may be dire consequences." (Baculum from the Latin means "stick".)
English Language Composition
18. Argumentum Ad Populum
-- This fallacy occurs when an argument panders to popular passion or sentiment. When, for instance, a politician exclaims in a...
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