ap-chemistry lab, indentify substance

Topics: Ionic bond, Chemical polarity, Atom Pages: 8 (2382 words) Published: December 5, 2013

Lab: Identify the Unknown substance


The purpose of this lab is to identify what the four substances. These four substance are all solids, and numbered #3,#6,#7 and #16. These substances can only be either metal, ionic compound, polar covalent compound or non- polar covalent compound. In order to identify all these compounds, there are 6 tests to test their conductivity in solid state, solubility in water, PH of the water solution, solubility in hexane, reaction with HCl acid and melting points. From the appearance, #3#7#16 are white solids, so they could be any compound but metal, and substance #6 is silver solid, so it could be metal, only test 1 and 5 will be used to identify #6. All the possible materials are stated in the table with their physical and chemical property.

appearancefomulaType of compoundconductivity when solidsolubility in waterphreaction in haxene solubility in methanolhcl(1.0M)melting points(℃) Ammonium chloridewhite solidNH4CLpolar COVALENTnoyesbaseno 334 Calcium carbonatewhite solidCaCO3ionicyesinsoluble nonoyes800 Benzoic acidwhite solidC7H6O2 polar covalentnoslightly solubleacidnoyesno122 SilversilverAgMETALyesno noxnoX

Naphthalenewhite solidC10H8non polar covalentnononoyesxno85 IodineblackINon metalyesyesnatural xx113.7
Sodium carbonatewhite solidNa2CO3ionicnoyesbaseyesxx851 Salicylic acidwhite solidC7H6O3polar COVALENTnoyesacid xx159 ZincsilverZnmetalyesnonononoslowx
Sodium acetatewhite solidC2H3NaO2polar covalentnogoodbase yesno324 or 58 Sucrosewhite solidC12H22O11polar covalentnogoodnaturalnoyesno186 CopperbronzeCumetalyesnonononoslowX

Sodium chloridewhite solidNaClionicnoyesnatural no reaction801 Stearic acidwhite solid C18H36O2Slightly polar covlaentnobadxyesnox69 Copper sulfate pentahydrateblue solidCuSO4ionicyesyesnaturalnoxx650

Distilled water
Test tubes
Melting point tester
Ph paper
Glass stick

Test 1:Tested the conductivity when all the materials are in solid state
Put the conductor's conductive end in to the material #3
Recorded the results.
Repeat 1-2 for all the material

Test 2:Test the solubility in water
Put a little material #3in a test tube.
Put 2-3 ml of distilled water.
Stirred with the glass stick.
Observed if the material was dissolving.
Use a PH paper to test the PH of the solution.
Recorded the results.
Repeat 1-6 for all the materials.

Test 3: Test the conductivity in solution
Used the conductor to touch the solution with the material#3.
Record the result.
Repeat for #7 and #16.

Test 4: Test the solubility in hexane
Put a little material#3 in a test tube.
Added 2 ml of hexane.
Stirred with a glass stick
Observed if the material was dissolving, recorded the results.
Repeat 1-4 for #7 and #16s.

Test 5:Reaction with HCl
Put a little material #3 in a test tube
Added 2ml of HCl.
Observed if there was reaction(which will show in bubbles).
Recorded the result.
Repeat 1-4 for all the materials

Test 6: Melting points
Used the cellular tube to poke the material#3 until there was some substance inside the tube.
Put the cellular tube in to the melting point tester, set the temperature to 200
Waited until the substance started to melt.
Record the melting point.
Repeat 1-4 for #7 and #16.

conductivity when solidsolubility in waterphreaction in hexane melting points(below 200℃)hclconductivity when solutionname of the substance #7noyes3, acidicno165noyessalicylic acid

#3nononot able to testyes87nononaphthalene
#16noyesacidicnonot meltingnoyessodium chloride
#6yesnonononot meltinglot of bubblenomagnesium
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