1. Paleolithic: The period of time also known as the Old Stone Age, which lasted until about 10,000 years ago. 2. Neolithic: The period of time also known as the New Stone Age. It is associated with the origins of agriculture. 3. Foragers: Hunting and food-gathering people who ate wild vegetables, meat, wild edible plants, and insects to survive 4. Agricultural Revolutions: A series of separate transformations that occurred when agriculture arose independently in many different places around the world. 5. Megaliths: A complex of stone structures in Egypt that included burial chambers, a calendar circle, and pairs of vertical stones that frame the sun on the summer solstice. 6. Sumerians: The people who lived in Mesopotamia at the start of the “historical period.” They were responsible for the creation of many fundamentals of their culture, such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions. 7. Semitic: A series of languages spoken in parts of western Asia and northern Africa, including Aramaic, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Arabic. 8. City-State: Self-governing independent states that contain an urban center and the agricultural territories they controlled. 9. Babylon: The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. Babylon became the capital of the “Old Babylonian” state under king Hammurabi’s rule. 10. Hammurabi: Amorite ruler of Babylon who conquered in southern and northern Mesopotamia. He is best known for his code of laws. 11. Scribe: Trained professionals who trained in order to read and write using cuneiform, hieroglyphics, or other early writing systems. 12. Ziggurat: A multistory pyramid-like stepped tower made of mudbricks associated with religion in ancient Mesopotamian cities. 13. Amulet: Small charms meant to protect the bearer from evil. They reflect the religious practices of the common people. 14. Cuneiform: A system of writing that originated in Mesopotamia in which wedge-shaped symbols represented...
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