1) An element is to a(n) ___________ as an organ is to a(n) _______________
Answer - b - compound; organism
2) In the term trace element, the modifier trace means
Answer - a - the element is required in very small amounts.
3) Compared to 31P, the radioactive isotope 32P has
Answer - b - one more neutron
4) Atoms can be represented by simply listing the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons - for example, 2P+; 2n0; 2e- for helium. Which atom represents the 18O isotope of oxygen?
Answer - b - 8p+; 10n0; 8e-
5) The atomic umber of sulfur is 16. Sulfur combines with hydrogen sulfide. Based on the electron configuration of sulfur, we can predict that the molecular formula of the compound will be
Answer - c - H2S.
6) Review the valences of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen and then determine which of the following molecules is most likely to exist.
Answer - b -
7) The reactivity of an atom arises from
Answer - b - the existence of unpaired electrons in the valence shell.
8) Which of these statements is true of all anionic atoms?
Answer - a - the atom has more electrons than protons.
9) What coefficients must be placed in the blanks so that all atoms are accounted for in the products?
C6H12O6 = __ C2H6O + __CO2
Answer - b - 2;2
10) Which of the following statements correctly describes any chemical reaction that has equilibrium?
Answer - b - the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
1) What is the best explanation of the phrase "fitness of the environment", as use I this chapter?
Answer - d - Life as we know it depends on certain environmental qualities on earth.
2) Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability to sweat to lower body temperature?
Answer - d - the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds.
3) For two bodies of matter in contact, heat always flows from:
Answer - b - the body of higher temperature to the one of lower temperature.
4) A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-L container of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water?
Answer - c - 10 degrees Celsius.
5) The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are
Answer - b - bonds between water molecules.
6) Which of the following is an example of a hydrophobic material?
Answer - c - wax
7) We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are in equal in their:
Answer - c - number of molecules.
8) How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2) would you use to make 10L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid?
Answer - d - 60.0 grams
9) Acid precipitation has lowered the pH of a particular lake to 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake?
Answer - c - 10-4M.
10) What is the hydroxide concentration of the lake described in question 9?
Answer - c- 10-10M
1) Organic chemistry is currently defined as
Answer - b - the study of carbon compounds.
2) Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Hydroxyl is to ____ as _________ is to aldehyde
Answer - c - alcohol, carbonyl.
3) Which of the following hydrocarbons has a double bond in its carbon skeleton?
Answer - d - C2H4
4) The gasoline consumed by an automobile is a fossil fuel consisting mostly of
Answer - d - hydrocarbons.
5) Choose the term that correctly describes the relationship between these two sugar molecules:
Answer - a - structural isomers.
6) Identify the asymmetric carbon in this molecule:
Answer - b -
7) Which functional group is not present in this molecule?
Answer - b - sulfhydryl.
8) Which action could produce a carbonyl group?
Answer - a - the replacement of the hydroxyl of a carboxyl group with hydrogen.
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