Ap Biology- Biochemistry

Topics: Atom, Chemical bond, Covalent bond Pages: 4 (648 words) Published: August 25, 2013
BIOCHEMISTRY: AP BIO

• Element: substance that can’t be broken down to another substance

• Atom: small particle of matter that keeps information and properties of an element

• Isotopes: atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

• Molecule: two or more atoms that are held together by covalent bonds

• Compound: a substance that consists of two of more other element that combine in a fixed ratio

• Electrons are often in pairs, fill their outer shell

• Atoms retain the electrically neutral condition

• An atom with a full outer energy level is more stable

• Ionic bond is an atom with a SPARE electron (electronegativity bigger than 1.7)

• Covalent bond is an atom that NEEDS and electron to become stable

• Non-polar covalent bond: electronegativity lower than 0.3

• Polar covalent bond: electronegativity between 0.3 and 1.7

• SPONCH: sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen

• Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds that means it is diverse.

• Cohesion: molecular force between water that acts to attract multiple particles together

• Adhesion: molecular force of attraction in the area of contact between unlike bodies that acts to hold them together

• Surface tension: measure of difficulty of how difficult it is to stretch and break the surface of a liquid

• Hydrogen bond: a chemical bond which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom

• Capillary action: the movement of a liquid up a narrow tube caused by the attracted of molecules to the liquid to the molecules of the solid due to both adhesion and cohesion

• Specific heat: heat required to raise unit mass of a substance by unit temperature interval under specified conditions

• Carbohydrate is a large group of organic compounds in foods and living tissues including sugars, start and cellulose. Typically broken down to...
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