Ap Bio Chapter 23

Powerful Essays
\ Chapter 23 Reading guide
1. what is the smallest unit of evolution and why is this important to understand? The population is the smallest unit of evolution . This is important to understand because it keeps clear what is evolving.
2. Define the following terms:
a. Microevolution: evolutionary change below the species level; change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation. It is evolutionary change on its smallest scale
b. Population: a localized group of individuals that belong to the same biological species, capable of interbreeding and producing viable offspring.
c. Population genetics: the study of how populations change genetically over time.
d. Gene pool: the total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time. It consists of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of the population
3. What is the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem and why does it appear to be an apparent contradiction to evolution? The theorem states that frequencies of alleles and genotypes will stay the same as long as the gametes are contributed to the next population at random. This appears to be a contradiction to evolution because it seems to say populations will never change. However, this condition only exists under certain conditions which do not apply to the majority of populations. The five conditions are: 1. Extremely large population size. 2. No gene flow. 3. No mutations. 4. Random Mating 5. No natural selection.
4. What is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is the condition describing a non-evolving population (one that is in genetic equilibrium).
5. Use the blank diagram below to relate the H-W equation to a Punnett square. The theorem states that frequencies of alleles and genotypes will stay the same as long as the gametes are contributed to the next population at random. This appears to be a contradiction to evolution because it seems to say populations will never change. However, this condition only

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