The term anti biotic is defined as a drug derived from living matter or micro organism. Which either prevents the growth of other micro organism or destroy them. Classification
* The spectrum of biological action of anti biotic
* It mainly effective against gram positive bacteria. Eg.penicillin,fucidin * It mainly effective against gram negative bacteria .
* It effective against protozao.
* It Effective against fungi.
According to their chemical structure
* Acylic structure
This type of anti biotic comprise cyclopentane, cyclohexane, Cycloheptane derivatives. Eg. Sarcomycin, Thujic acid
This group includes compounds similar in their structure. Eg.tetracycline * Aromatic antibiotics
Antibiotics included in this group are benzene derivatives. E.g. Gallic acid Properties of antibiotics
* It has few or no side effect in humans.
* It kills different types of harmful bacteria.
* It doesn’t kills good bacteria.
* Antibiotics vary greatly in their toxicity for animals and humans. Therapeutic uses
* The original indication of chlroamphenicol was in the treatment. * It may used as a second line agent in the treatment Of tetracycline resistant cholera. * It has been used initial empirical treatment of Children with fewer and a petechial rash. * It could also be applied to frogs to prevent their Wide spread destruction from fungal disease or Infection. * It has been discovered to be a life saving cure for Chytridiomycosis (chytrid infected frog) in Amphibians. PENICILLIN
* It is also used in the treatment of ditheria ,tetanus and gangrene. * The antibiotics can be used topically, orally or parentally. * In oral therapy the dosage must be larger as the drug is in-activated to a significant extent by gastric acid. * It is very effective against
1. Pneumococcal infection like pneumonia
2. Streptococcal infection like scarlet fever.
* The most important use of is in the treatment of tuberculosis. * It also used in treating infection of E.coli, H.influence,etc.., * Streptomycin drug may show some adverse reaction like irritations skin rashes etc.., * H.influenzao,stapylococcai infection,neomycin .
* All used in the form of oinment for the treatment of various skin diseases. Tetracycline
* They are board spectrum antibiotic which is effective against gram positive. * These drugs are bacteriostatic in action and inhibit certain essential enzymes systems of the bacterial cell. * They are used for the treatment of variety of infection such as pneumonia,actinomycosis, urinary infection,etc.., * It is less toxic drug and is well tolerated by the patient and is readily absorbed from the gastro intestinal tract. SULPHA DRUGS
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SULPHANILAMIDE
* Experimental studies of the phagocytic and bactericidal actions of blood and serum should be so performed as to exclude the presence of even traces of added peptone-like material. * When traces of peptone are present, sulfanilamide in concentrations similar to those occurring in the sera of treated patients produces morphological alterations of hemolytic streptococci in serum which are associated with diminished reproductive activity but not with bacterial death. * In this form the streptococci are susceptible to destruction by phagocytes. Blood containing peptone and sulfanilamide may, therefore, be bactericidal. * When peptone is excluded by washing the inoculum in serum or saline, sulfanilamide in the above concentrations will completely inhibit multiplication of young streptococci in serum, and sterility will frequently result within 24 hours if the...
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