Antibacterial Activity of Jatropha Curcas and Tinospora Crispa Against Aeromonas Sobria Fish Pathogen

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the background of the problem, main problem, the sub-problems, and hypothesis, significance of the study and the scope and limitations of the study.
Background of the Problem
Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a very popular aquaculture species in the Philippines at present and considered as an “aquatic chicken” offering economical and social benefits mainly for rural communities. It also play vital role in terms of worldwide employment, however there were reported cases of high mortality rates in different species of Tilapia cause by Aeromonas species (Badillo, 2010).
One of the most common bacteria that infect the wild and cultured Tilapia is Aeromonas sobria. Aeromonas sobria is water borne pathogen that are common in almost all aquatic environments including fresh, brackish and marine water. They cause fin rot or skin rot disease and may lead to heavy mortality in cultured tilapia (El-Sayed, 2006).
Aeromonas sobria veronii also causes a similar disease in fish including Motile Aeromonas Septicemia in Tilapia (Janda and Abbott, 2010).
Bacterial infections, caused by motile members of the genus Aeromonas are among the most common and troublesome diseases of fish raised in ponds and recirculating systems.
The Motile Aeromonas infections have been recognized for many years and have been referred to by various names, including Motile Aeromonad Septicemia (MAS), Motile Aeromonad Infection (MAI), hemorrhagic septicemia, red pest, and red sore (Camus, Durborow, Hemstreet, Thune and Hawke, 2012).
One of the most common treatment for the skin lesions, fin rots and infections caused by Aeromonas sobria is the use of chemicals specifically tetracycline. However, in 2012, Romero, Feijoo and Navarette stated that fish do not effectively metabolize antibiotics and will pass them largely unused back into the environment in the form of feces. It also been estimated that 75% of antibiotic fed to fish are excreted



Bibliography: Romero, J., Feijoo. C. G., and Navarrete, P., April 11, 2012, Health and Environment in Aquaculture, Antibiotics in Aquaculture-Use, abuse and alternatives, In tech, p. 160 Journals Aberoum, A., Jooyandeh, H., 2010, World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, A Review on Occurrence and Characterization of the Aeromonas Species from Marine Fishes, 6:p. 519 Ahmed, W Ashiru, Uaboi-Egbeni, Oguntowo, Idika, 2011, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, Isolation and antibiotic profile of Aeromonas Species from Tilapia fish and Catfish, 10: pp.1-2 Badillo, L Cipriano, R. C., 2001, Fish disease leaflet, Aeromonas hydrophila and Motile Aeromonad Septicemias of fish, 68: pp.1-2 Das, K., Tiwari, R Janda, J. M., and Abbott, S. L., 2010, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection, 23: pp.44-45 Michalova, E., Novotna, P., Schlegelova, J., 2004, Vet Namuli, A., Abdullah, N., Sieo, C. C., Zuhainis, S. W., Oskoueian, E., 2011, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Phytochemical compounds and antibacterial activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. Extracts, 5: pp. 3984-3985 Pompa, T., and Masser, M., 2012, Tilapia Life History and Biology, Southern Regional Aquaculture center. Ibrahem, M.D., Mostafa, M.M., Arab, R.M., Rezk, M.A., 2008, Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in wild and cultured Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) in Egypt, p.2 Electronic sources http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1322, 2008.

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