S OUTHEAST ASIAN J T ROP MED P UBLIC H EALTH
ANTI-HEAD LICE EFFECT OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA SEEDS
Junya Intaranongpai 1, Warinthorn Chavasiri 2 and Wandee Gritsanapan 1 1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Abstract. The present study focused on the separation and identification of the active compounds against head lice from the hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed. Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques revealed that two major compounds of the hexane seed extract were oleic acid and triglyceride with one oleate ester. The yields of these compounds were 13.25% and 7.74% dry weight, respectively. The compounds were tested in vitro against head lice, comparing to the crude hexane extract of the seed. The triglyceride with one oleate ester and the crude hexane extract diluted with coconut oil 1:1. These compounds were found to kill all tested head lice in 49, 11 and 30 minutes, respectively. The triglyceride ester can be used as a marker for quantitative analysis of the active compound for quality control of the raw material A. squamosa seed and its extract. This first finding will be useful for quality assessment and the chemical stability of the antihead lice preparation from this plant.
Annona squamosa L. (Custard apple) is a plant belonging to the family Annonaceae. It is popularly cultivated in all parts of Thailand, especially in the northeast, as a sweet fruit. The seed of this plant is well known for killing head lice in many countries (Boonyaprapasara, 1998). The human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is a small insect causing a public health problem, especially in poor sanitary conditions. In Thailand, research has shown the anti-head lice activity of A. squamosa. Puapatanakul (1980) reported that the extract of custard apple seeds in coconut oil at the ratio of 1:2 can kill 98% of head lice within two hours, while the leaf extract shows less potency. Gritsanapan et al (1996) found that the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and seeds dissolved in coconut oil at a ratio of 1:1, kill 90% of head lice in vitro by 53 and 26 minutes, respectively. A 20% cream (oil/ water) preparation of petroleum ether extract of custard apple seeds can kill 93% of head lice Correspondence: Wandee Gritsanapan, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447 Si Ayutthaya Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Tel: +66 (0) 2644-8677 ext 1500, 5530; Fax: +66 (0) 2644-8701 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 532
within 3 hours (Areekul and Chaikledkaew, 1994, personal communication). Gritsanapan et al (1996), reported that 20 g of 20% freshly prepared cream can kill 94.5±9.1% of head lice within 3 hours of application to school girls’ hair. Tiangda et al (2000) found the cream preparation of custard apple seed is biologically stable for at least 12 months. However, it is easier to control the quality and stability of the preparation by quantitative analysis of the active chemical components. The active compounds of A. squamosa seed extract have not been reported elsewhere. The present study, therefore, is focused on the isolation and identification of the anti-head lice components in the seeds of A. squamosa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Preparation of plant extracts A. squamosa seeds were purchased from Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand in October 2004. The samples were identified by comparison with the herbarium at Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wild-life and Plant Conservation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok. The voucher specimen (WAS 0704) has been deposited at the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol UniVol 37 No. 3 May 2006
A NTI-HEAD L ICE EFFECT
versity, Bangkok, Thailand. The seeds were washed and dried in a hot air oven at...
References: Aldrich Chemical Co, Inc. The Aldrich Library of 13C and 1H FT NMR Spectra. 1st ed, 1993. Boonyaprapasara N, Chokchaicharoenporn O, eds. Samunprai Maipuenbaan. Vol. 2. Bangkok: Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 1998: 454 (in Thai). Gritsanapan W, Somanabandhu A, Titirungruang C, Lertchaiporn M. A study on the antiparasitic activities and chemical constituents of extracts from the leaves and seeds of custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.). Proceedings of Third NRCT-
JSPS Joint Seminar, 1996: 209-15. McCage CM, Ward SM, Paling CA, Fisher DA, Flynn PJ, McLaughlin. Development of a paw paw herbal shampoo for the removal of head lice. Phytomedicine 2002; 9: 743-8. Puapatanakul O. Clinical studies of Annona squamosa seeds and leaves for the treatment of head lice. 1980: 37 pp (in Thai). T iangda C, Gritsanapan W, Sookvanichsilp N, Limchalearn A. Antihead-lice activity of Annona squamosa seed extract. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2000;31 (suppl 1): 174-7.
Vol 37 No. 3 May 2006
Please join StudyMode to read the full document