Anti-angiogenesis Effect of Calabash Fruit (Crescentia cujete Linn.) Pericarp Fruit via Choriollantoic Membrane Assay: A Potential Agent against Tumour Vascularisation
R. J. I. Tambole, M. J. K. Peteros, J. J. Alegado
Bayugan National Comprehensive High School
Cancer has been a leading cause of death worldwide and will still be the same on the future if necessary actions will not be done. A lot of people can be affected by this disease yet not all of them have the access of expensive and artificial treatments. The researchers are urged to discover a natural and effective for stopping tumour vascularisation. In this study, the pericarp of the Calabash (Crescentia Cujete) is utilized as an effective treatment for stopping tumour vascularisation.The obtained 457g of Calabash Fruit pericarp was soaked by solvent extraction using 1.5L 95%-Hexane and 1.5L 95%-Ethanol for 24 hours each. The extract was filtered and evaporated using rotary evaporator for 3 hours and further dried for 24 hours. The residual crude extract was poured in a glass container. The extracts were tested through Chorioallontoic Membrane Assay (CAM).The CAM Assay gave the following results. The mesh indices of the different concentration (25%, 50%, 100%) of the extracts, and the positive and negative control were the following: 285.663, 280.534, 166.008, 176.162, and 244.049.The result of the Chorioallontoic Membrane Assay showed that the extract showed no significant difference to the positive control so it is showed that the extract also has anti-angiogenic effect to the chick embryo. The anti-angiogenic property only shows when 100% concentration (dose-dependent) of the extract is injected to the egg. The researcher concluded that the Calabash Fruit Pericarp has anti-angiogenic effect thus having the potential of halting tumor vascularisation.
Cancer is a malignant tissue (tumour) that generated from the result of the continuous proliferation of abnormal cells and has the ability to destroy other cells. It is a multi-stage process which happens when irreversible genetic alterations happen in the cell (National Cancer Institute, no date). According to the World Health Organization, cancer is one of the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths in 2008 It is projected to continue rising with an estimated 20 million cases and 12 million deaths in 2030. According to the National Cancer Institute (no date), the process angiogenesis which means the new growth of blood vessels is important for our metabolism and bodily processes, but this process also tolerates the growth of cancers and tumours, in which they are provided sufficient oxygen and nutrients in order to survive, proliferate and spread to other parts of the body or mestasize. The current most popular trend for ‘curing’ cancer is chemotherapy but it is expensive, artificial and has a serious side effects. In this connection the researchers are led to the fruit called Miracle Fruit or Calabash Fruit in which the Pericarp will be utilized as an anti-angiogenic drug in order to stop tumour vascularisation.
1. Calabash Fruit Pericarp Collection Preparation and Extraction. The Calabash Fruit pericarp was collected at Bayugan City, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. The researchers collected 457g of pericarp. The fruit was first crushed until each piece was approximately one inch. It was then soaked in ethanol for 36 hours then it was subjected to Rotary Evaporator machine in order to have the crude extract. The total amount of extract collected is approximately 100mL.
2. Egg Disinfection and Preparation.
Each of the 20 eggs was cleaned and disinfected using the Lysol disinfectant spray. The 20 eggs were separated in to 5 sets each containing 4 eggs. The blunt part of the eggs were then opened (except the chorioallontoic membrane) in preparation for the CAM Assay.
3. Chorioallontoic Membrane Assay.
This assay is used...
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