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This article is about the social science. For other uses, see Anthropology (disambiguation). Anthropology
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Anthropology (pron.: /ænθrɵˈpɒlədʒi/) is the "science of humanity."  It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. The term "anthropology" is from theGreek anthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος), "man", understood to mean humankind or humanity, and -logia (-λογία), "discourse" or "study." Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social sciences by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, cross-cultural comparisons, and the importance it places on participant-observation, or long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research. Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativity, holism and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. This has been particularly prominent in the United States, from Boas's arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of post-colonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism.Ethnography is one of its primary methods as well as the text that is generated from anthropological fieldwork. In the United States, the discipline is traditionally divided into four sub-fields: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and biological anthropology. In Europe, the discipline originated as ethnology and was originally defined as the study of social organization in non-state societies. It was later renamed social anthropology. It is now generally referred to as socio-cultural anthropology in most of Europe, the commonwealth, and in the parts of the world that were influenced by the European tradition. Contents [hide] * 1 Disciplines * 1.1 Sociocultural anthropology * 1.2 Biological anthropology * 1.3 Archaeological anthropology * 1.4 Linguistic anthropology * 2 Key topics by field: Socio-cultural anthropology * 2.1 Applied anthropology * 2.2 Anthropology of art * 2.3 Cognitive anthropology * 2.4 Cyber anthropology * 2.5 Anthropology of development * 2.6 Ecological anthropology * 2.7 Economic anthropology * 2.8 Historical anthropology * 2.9 Anthropology of gender &...
References: 3. ^ a b Hylland Eriksen, Thomas. (2004) "What is Anthropology" Pluto. London. p. 79.
4. ^ a b c Tim Ingold (1994). "Introduction to culture". In Tim Ingold.Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology. pp. 331.
6. ^ Heyck, Thomas William (1997) at Links.jstor.org The American Historical Review, Vol. 102, No. 5 (December, 1997), pp. 1486-1488doi:10.2307/2171126
8. ^ Han F. Vermeulen, "The German Invention of Völkerkunde: Ethnological Discourse in Europe and Asia, 1740-1798." In: Sara Eigen and Mark Larrimore, eds. The German Invention of Race. 2006.
11. ^ Bloch, Maurice (1991). "Language, Anthropology and Cognitive Science".Man (London School of Economics and Political Science) 26 (2): 183–198.doi:10.2307/2803828. JSTOR 2803828.
12. ^ Daniel A. Segal & Sylvia J. Yanagisako, ed. (2005). Unwrapping the Sacred Bundle. Durham and London: Duke University Press. pp. Back Cover.
15. ^ Tim Ingold (1996). Key Debates In Anthropology. pp. 18. "the traditional anthropological project of cross-cultural or cross-societal comparison"
17. ^ University of Toronto. (n.d.). Research Subfields: Physical or Biological. Retrieved March 14, 2012, fromhttp://anthropology.utoronto.ca/about/research/physical-or-biological
19. ^ Salzmann, Zdeněk. (1993) Language, culture, and society: an introduction to linguistic anthropology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
20. ^ Kedia, Satish, and Willigen J. Van (2005). Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application. Westport, Conn: Praeger. pp. 16, 150.
21. ^ Robert Layton. (1981) The Anthropology of Art.
22. ^ D 'Andrade (1995)
24. ^ Townsend, Patricia K. (2009). Environmental anthropology : from pigs to policies (2nd ed.). Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press. pp. 104.ISBN 978-1-57766-581-6.
25. ^ Hann, Chris; Keith Hart (2011). Economic Anthropology. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 55–71.
26. ^ Greenhouse, Carol J. (1986). Praying for Justice: Faith, Order, and Community in an American Town. Ithaca: Cornell UP. pp. 28.
27. ^ Deborah Spitulnik. (1993) 'Anthropology and Mass Media ', Annual Review of Anthropology, 22: 293-315
29. ^ McElroy, A (1996). "Medical Anthropology". In D. Levinson & M. Ember.Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology
31. ^ Schwartz, T., G. M. White, et al., Eds. (1992). New Directions in Psychological Anthropology. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
32. ^ Cassirer, Ernst (1944) An Essay On Man, pt.II, ch.7 Myth and Religion, pp.122-3. Quotation:
It seems to be one of the postulates of modern anthropology that there is complete continuity between magic and religion
33. ^ Guthrie (2000) pp.225-6
35. ^ Griffiths, Michael. B., Flemming Christiansen, and Malcolm Chapman. (2010) 'Chinese Consumers: The Romantic Reappraisal’. Ethnography, Sept 2010, 11, 331-357.
37. ^ DeMello, Margo. Teaching the Animal: Human–Animal Studies Across the Disciplines. Lantern Books, 2010, p. xi.
* Also see Animals & Society Institute, accessed February 23, 2011.
38. ^ Goodman, Alan H.; Thomas L. Leatherman (eds.) (1998). Building A New Biocultural Synthesis. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-06606-3.
41. ^ Johanson, Donald and Kate Wong. Lucy 's Legacy. Kindle Books. 2007; Netti, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press, 2005. Chapter One
43. ^ van Breman, Jan, and Akitoshi Shimizu (1999) Anthropology and Colonialism in Asia and Oceania. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press.
44. ^ Gellner, Ernest (1992) Postmodernism, Reason, and Religion. London/New York: Routledge. Pp: 26-29.
45. ^ Levi-Strauss, Claude. The Savage Mind. 1962; Womack, Mari. Being Human. 2001
55. ^ Robert Jurmaiine, Lynn Kiilgore, Wenda Treavathan, and Russell L. Ciochon. Introduction to Physical Anthropology. 11th Edition. Wadsworth. 2007, chapters I, III and IV.; Wompack, Mari. Being Human. Prentice Hall. 2001, pp. 11-20.
56. ^ Brown, Donald. Human Universals. McGraw Hill. 1991; Roughley, Neil.Being Humans: Anthropological Universality and Particularity in Transciplinary Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter Publishing. 2000
58. ^ George Stocking, "Paradigmatic Traditions in the History of Anthropology." In George Stocking, The Ethnographer 's Magic and Other Essays in the History of Anthropology (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992):342-361.
59. ^ Leaf, Murray. Man, Mind and Science: A History of Anthropology.Columbia University Press. 1979
61. ^ Ulf Hannerz (1980) "Exploring the City: Inquiries Toward an Urban Anthropology", ISBN 0-231-08376-9, p. 1
63. ^ Jack Goody (2007) The Theft of History Cambridge University PressISBN 0-521-87069-0
65. ^ Fischer, Michael M. J. Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice. Duke University Press, 2003.
* Barnard, Alan and Spencer, Jonathan eds. (2010) The Routledge Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology London: Routledge
* Barfield, Thomas (1997). The dictionary of anthropology. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.
* Levinson, David and Melvin Ember. eds. (1996) Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. (4 vols.) New York: Henry Holt.
* Rapport, Nigel and Overing, Joanna (2007) Social and Cultural Anthropology: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge
Fieldnotes and memoirs of anthropologists
* Barley, Nigel (1983) The innocent anthropologist: notes from a mud hut. London: British Museum Publications.
* Geertz, Clifford (1995) After the fact: two countries, four decades, one anthropologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
* Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1967) Tristes tropiques. Translated from the French by John Russell. New York: Atheneum.
* Malinowski, Bronisław (1967) A diary in the strict sense of the term. Translated by Norbert Guterman. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World.
* Mead, Margaret (1972) Blackberry winter: my earlier years. New York: William Marrow.
* Mead, Margaret, (1977) Letters from the field, 1925 - 1975. New York: Harper & Row.
* Rabinow, Paul. (1977) Reflections on fieldwork in Morocco.
* Harris, Marvin. (2001) The rise of anthropological theory: a history of theories of culture. AltaMira Press. Walnut Creek, CA.
* Kehoe, Alice B. (1998) The Land of Prehistory: A Critical History of American Archaeology.
* Lewis, Herbert S. (1998) "The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and its Consequences." American Anthropologist, 100: 716-731. Interscience.wiley.com, Lewis
* Lewis, Herbert S
* Lewis, Herbert S. (2005) "Anthropology, the Cold War, and Intellectual History. In R. Darnell & F.W. Gleach, eds. Histories of Anthropology Annual, Vol. I.
* Pels, Peter & Oscar Salemink, eds. (2000) Colonial Subjects: Essays on the Practical History of Anthropology.
* Price, David. (2004) Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI 's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists.
* Stocking, George, Jr. (1968) Race, Culture and Evolution. New York: Free Press.
* Trencher, Susan. (2000) Mirrored Images: American Anthropology and American Culture, 1960-1980.
* Gisi, Lucas Marco. (2007) Einbildungskraft und Mythologie. Die Verschränkung von Anthropologie und Geschichte im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.
* Wolf, Eric. (1982) Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.
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