Anthropology Cultural Anthropology

Topics: Anthropology, Cultural anthropology, Culture Pages: 26 (7701 words) Published: April 8, 2013
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Anthropology
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This article is about the social science. For other uses, see Anthropology (disambiguation). Anthropology|
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Anthropology (pron.: /ænθrɵˈpɒlədʒi/) is the "science of humanity." [1] It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences.[2] The term "anthropology" is from theGreek anthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος), "man", understood to mean humankind or humanity, and -logia (-λογία), "discourse" or "study." Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social sciences by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, cross-cultural comparisons, and the importance it places on participant-observation, or long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research. Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativity, holism and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques.[3] This has been particularly prominent in the United States, from Boas's arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of post-colonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism.Ethnography is one of its primary methods as well as the text that is generated from anthropological fieldwork.[4][5][6] In the United States, the discipline is traditionally divided into four sub-fields: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and biological anthropology. In Europe, the discipline originated as ethnology and was originally defined as the study of social organization in non-state societies. It was later renamed social anthropology. It is now generally referred to as socio-cultural anthropology in most of Europe, the commonwealth, and in the parts of the world that were influenced by the European tradition.[7] Contents  [hide]  * 1 Disciplines * 1.1 Sociocultural anthropology * 1.2 Biological anthropology * 1.3 Archaeological anthropology * 1.4 Linguistic anthropology * 2 Key topics by field: Socio-cultural anthropology * 2.1 Applied anthropology * 2.2 Anthropology of art * 2.3 Cognitive anthropology * 2.4 Cyber anthropology * 2.5 Anthropology of development * 2.6 Ecological anthropology * 2.7 Economic anthropology * 2.8 Historical anthropology * 2.9 Anthropology of gender &...

References: 3. ^ a b Hylland Eriksen, Thomas. (2004) "What is Anthropology" Pluto. London. p. 79.
4. ^ a b c Tim Ingold (1994). "Introduction to culture". In Tim Ingold.Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology. pp. 331.
6. ^ Heyck, Thomas William (1997) at Links.jstor.org The American Historical Review, Vol. 102, No. 5 (December, 1997), pp. 1486-1488doi:10.2307/2171126
7
8. ^ Han F. Vermeulen, "The German Invention of Völkerkunde: Ethnological Discourse in Europe and Asia, 1740-1798." In: Sara Eigen and Mark Larrimore, eds. The German Invention of Race. 2006.
11. ^ Bloch, Maurice (1991). "Language, Anthropology and Cognitive Science".Man (London School of Economics and Political Science) 26 (2): 183–198.doi:10.2307/2803828. JSTOR 2803828.
12. ^ Daniel A. Segal & Sylvia J. Yanagisako, ed. (2005). Unwrapping the Sacred Bundle. Durham and London: Duke University Press. pp. Back Cover.
15. ^ Tim Ingold (1996). Key Debates In Anthropology. pp. 18. "the traditional anthropological project of cross-cultural or cross-societal comparison"
16
17. ^ University of Toronto. (n.d.). Research Subfields: Physical or Biological. Retrieved March 14, 2012, fromhttp://anthropology.utoronto.ca/about/research/physical-or-biological
18
19. ^ Salzmann, Zdeněk. (1993) Language, culture, and society: an introduction to linguistic anthropology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
20. ^ Kedia, Satish, and Willigen J. Van (2005). Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application. Westport, Conn: Praeger. pp. 16, 150.
21. ^ Robert Layton. (1981) The Anthropology of Art.
22. ^ D 'Andrade (1995)
23
24. ^ Townsend, Patricia K. (2009). Environmental anthropology : from pigs to policies (2nd ed.). Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press. pp. 104.ISBN 978-1-57766-581-6.
25. ^ Hann, Chris; Keith Hart (2011). Economic Anthropology. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 55–71.
26. ^ Greenhouse, Carol J. (1986). Praying for Justice: Faith, Order, and Community in an American Town. Ithaca: Cornell UP. pp. 28.
27. ^ Deborah Spitulnik. (1993) 'Anthropology and Mass Media ', Annual Review of Anthropology, 22: 293-315
28
29. ^ McElroy, A (1996). "Medical Anthropology". In D. Levinson & M. Ember.Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology
30
31. ^ Schwartz, T., G. M. White, et al., Eds. (1992). New Directions in Psychological Anthropology. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
32. ^ Cassirer, Ernst (1944) An Essay On Man, pt.II, ch.7 Myth and Religion, pp.122-3. Quotation:
It seems to be one of the postulates of modern anthropology that there is complete continuity between magic and religion
33. ^ Guthrie (2000) pp.225-6
34
35. ^ Griffiths, Michael. B., Flemming Christiansen, and Malcolm Chapman. (2010) 'Chinese Consumers: The Romantic Reappraisal’. Ethnography, Sept 2010, 11, 331-357.
37. ^ DeMello, Margo. Teaching the Animal: Human–Animal Studies Across the Disciplines. Lantern Books, 2010, p. xi.
* Also see Animals & Society Institute, accessed February 23, 2011.
38. ^ Goodman, Alan H.; Thomas L. Leatherman (eds.) (1998). Building A New Biocultural Synthesis. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-06606-3.
41. ^ Johanson, Donald and Kate Wong. Lucy 's Legacy. Kindle Books. 2007; Netti, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press, 2005. Chapter One
42
43. ^ van Breman, Jan, and Akitoshi Shimizu (1999) Anthropology and Colonialism in Asia and Oceania. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press.
44. ^ Gellner, Ernest (1992) Postmodernism, Reason, and Religion. London/New York: Routledge. Pp: 26-29.
45. ^ Levi-Strauss, Claude. The Savage Mind. 1962; Womack, Mari. Being Human. 2001
46
55. ^ Robert Jurmaiine, Lynn Kiilgore, Wenda Treavathan, and Russell L. Ciochon. Introduction to Physical Anthropology. 11th Edition. Wadsworth. 2007, chapters I, III and IV.; Wompack, Mari. Being Human. Prentice Hall. 2001, pp. 11-20.
56. ^ Brown, Donald. Human Universals. McGraw Hill. 1991; Roughley, Neil.Being Humans: Anthropological Universality and Particularity in Transciplinary Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter Publishing. 2000
57
58. ^ George Stocking, "Paradigmatic Traditions in the History of Anthropology." In George Stocking, The Ethnographer 's Magic and Other Essays in the History of Anthropology (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992):342-361.
59. ^ Leaf, Murray. Man, Mind and Science: A History of Anthropology.Columbia University Press. 1979
60
61. ^ Ulf Hannerz (1980) "Exploring the City: Inquiries Toward an Urban Anthropology", ISBN 0-231-08376-9, p. 1
62
63. ^ Jack Goody (2007) The Theft of History Cambridge University PressISBN 0-521-87069-0
64
65. ^ Fischer, Michael M. J. Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice. Duke University Press, 2003.
* Barnard, Alan and Spencer, Jonathan eds. (2010) The Routledge Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology London: Routledge
* Barfield, Thomas (1997). The dictionary of anthropology. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.
* Levinson, David and Melvin Ember. eds. (1996) Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. (4 vols.) New York: Henry Holt.
* Rapport, Nigel and Overing, Joanna (2007) Social and Cultural Anthropology: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge
[edit]Fieldnotes and memoirs of anthropologists
* Barley, Nigel (1983) The innocent anthropologist: notes from a mud hut. London: British Museum Publications.
* Geertz, Clifford (1995) After the fact: two countries, four decades, one anthropologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
* Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1967) Tristes tropiques. Translated from the French by John Russell. New York: Atheneum.
* Malinowski, Bronisław (1967) A diary in the strict sense of the term. Translated by Norbert Guterman. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World.
* Mead, Margaret (1972) Blackberry winter: my earlier years. New York: William Marrow.
* Mead, Margaret, (1977) Letters from the field, 1925 - 1975. New York: Harper & Row.
* Rabinow, Paul. (1977) Reflections on fieldwork in Morocco.
* Harris, Marvin. (2001[1968]) The rise of anthropological theory: a history of theories of culture. AltaMira Press. Walnut Creek, CA.
* Kehoe, Alice B. (1998) The Land of Prehistory: A Critical History of American Archaeology.
* Lewis, Herbert S. (1998) "The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and its Consequences." American Anthropologist, 100: 716-731. Interscience.wiley.com, Lewis
* Lewis, Herbert S
* Lewis, Herbert S. (2005) "Anthropology, the Cold War, and Intellectual History. In R. Darnell & F.W. Gleach, eds. Histories of Anthropology Annual, Vol. I.
* Pels, Peter & Oscar Salemink, eds. (2000) Colonial Subjects: Essays on the Practical History of Anthropology.
* Price, David. (2004) Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI 's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists.
* Stocking, George, Jr. (1968) Race, Culture and Evolution. New York: Free Press.
* Trencher, Susan. (2000) Mirrored Images: American Anthropology and American Culture, 1960-1980.
* Gisi, Lucas Marco. (2007) Einbildungskraft und Mythologie. Die Verschränkung von Anthropologie und Geschichte im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.
* Wolf, Eric. (1982) Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.
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