Final Exam –Anth101
Thull, is an area where the violence of Kohistani was studied by R. Lincoln Keiser. In this region, the Kohistani, initially did not believe in bloodshed in order to solve conflicts. As elements in their traditional lives changed, Kohistani violence became more and more prevalent in their culture. Three specific changes were the main reasons for the growth in violence. One change led to another change, which then led to a third change. These changes to the traditional culture of the Kohistani were the reason for increased violence among the Kohistani in Thull. The Kohistani were originally pastoralists. Their subsistence methods consisted of a balance of farming and herding. The Kohistani of Thull had permanent residences in the river valleys throughout the seasons. Traditionally, women would continue to stay in these river valleys during the winter to farm, while the men moved to higher altitudes during the summer to find land for the animals. Eventually, men took over much of the subsistence efforts and took part in both farming and herding. The culture of herding meant that the Kohistani had to build relationships with other herders in order to maintain peace and decrease violence within groups. Thull is a region that was difficult to travel in and out of without developed roads. Once roads were constructed and transportation was introduced, the Kohistani were able to travel to other regions to trade. This change introduced the Kohistani to the market economy, which disturbed the balance of herding and farming. As they became less dependent on herding, they were able to use the land for more farming. Thus, cultivating potatoes became the main source of income for the Kohistani. The entrance into the market economy enabled the people of Thull to increase their wealth. Through the road systems and the increased inflow of cash, Kohistani were introduced to another cultural change.