13. (Not important)
Economies of scale
Learning / Experience curve
Linkage among activities
Interrelationship among business units
Degree of vertical integration
Timing of market entry
Firm’s policy of cost or differentiation
Institutional factor (regulation, union activity, taxes, etc.) 15. Technology is employed to some degree in every value creating activity. It impacts competitive advantages by making new configuration of the value chain possible
Reduce the costs of activity
Reduce manpower cost
Reduce time required
Increase the efficiency of the activity
Increase output per unit time
Improve the quality of work
16. Considering the case in which the design of a product in changed in order to reduce manufacturing costs. Suppose that inadvertently the new product design results in increased service costs; the cost reduction could be less than anticipated and even worse, there could be a net cost increase. Sometimes however, the firm may be able to reduce the cost in one activity and consequently enjoy a cost reduction in another, such as when a design change simultaneously reduces manufacturing costs and improve reliability so that the service costs are also reduced. Through such improvements the firm has the potential to develop a competitive advantage.
17. Cost leadership, Differentiation and Focus Strategy.
18. Maximizing internal cost efficiencies ; Improve processing efficiencies ; Outsourcing non-essential activities ; Limiting internal expenditures on accommodation and management extras ; Managing and minimizing waste. Employee’s participant in cost management process and provide cost efficient incentives. Redesigning production process; Lower input materials cost. Relocating labour-based production.
19. Functional capabilities; product performance improvements;