1. Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory She stated in her nursing notes that nursing "is an act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery" (Nightingale 1860/1969), that it involves the nurse 's initiative to configure environmental settings appropriate for the gradual restoration of the patient 's health, and that external factors associated with the patient 's surroundings affect life or biologic and physiologic processes, and his development. She defined in her environmental theory are the following factors present in the patient 's environment: pure or fresh air, pure water, sufficient food supplies, sufficient drainage, cleanliness, light (especially direct sunlight). Any deficiency in one or more of these factors could lead to impaired functioning of life processes or diminished health status. The factors posed great significance during Nightingale 's time, when health institutions had poor sanitation, and health workers had little education and training and were frequently incompetent and unreliable in attending to the needs of the patients. Also emphasized in her environmental theory is the provision of a quiet or noise-free and warm environment, attending to patient 's dietary needs by assessment, documentation of time of food intake, and evaluating its effects on the patient.
Nightingale 's theory was shown to be applicable during the Crimean War when she, along with other nurses she had trained, took care of injured soldiers by attending to their immediate needs, when communicable diseases and rapid spread of infections were rampant in this early period in the development of disease-capable medicines. The practice of environment configuration according to patient 's health or disease condition is still applied today, in such cases as patients infected with Clostridium tetani (suffering from tetanus), who need minimal noise to