Running Head:ANIMAL RESEARCH: RELEVANT FOR THE 21'STCENTURY?
ANIMAL RESEARCH: RELEVEANT FOR THE 21'ST CENTURY? Candace A. Steller March, 2014 PS504-Kaplan University
ANIMAL RESEARCH: RELEVANT FOR THE 21'ST CENTURY? 2 Using animals for research began in second century Rome, with a physician named Galen, who reportedly dissected pigs and goats. He is known as the father of vivisection, which literally means the cutting of animals. However, the first documented animal testing was near the end of the nineteenth century with Louis Pasteur's development of his germ theory, by injecting sheep with anthrax, showing the importance of vaccines. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory supported that there could be a correlation between animals and humans for research. Psychologists got on board with animal research when Ivan Pavlov conducted psychological experiments on dogs in regards to memory and repetitive tasks in the late nineteenth century. Many important medical discoveries have come at the expense of animal suffering, such as insulin for diabetes, antibiotics, anesthetics, anticoagulants and kidney dialysis. The question of this study is as much an ethical one as it is a scientific one, however an attempt will be made to show that there is no longer a justification to use animals for future testing by researching animals studies done since 2000, and comparing the research information with prior knowledge and methods of new research that does not use animals. For, it is estimated (Riebeling, Oelgeshlea, Seiler, Liebsch, Luch, 2012) that worldwide, the number of vertebrate animals still used for testing exceeds one hundred...
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